欢迎来到悦读文库! | 帮助中心 行业资源交流与分享平台
悦读文库
全部分类
  • 招标采购 >
    招标采购
    常用模板/表格 PPT模板库 往来文书 工作总结 活动策划 工作计划 规章制度 解决方案 调研文书 事务文书 股份制文书 统计图表 简明教程 招标投标 传真信函 会议纪要 产品手册 课程设计 教学培训范文 通知/申请 求职简历 说明文档 演讲稿/致辞 其它办公文档
  • 商业/管理/HR >
    商业/管理/HR
    4a 4c 商业计划书 创业/孵化 市场营销 经营企划 销售管理 营销创新 宣传企划 资本运营 代理连锁/招商加盟 商业合同/协议 公司方案 企业信息化/信息管 管理学资料 企业文档 广告经营 财务报表 项目/工程管理 物业管理 质量控制/管理 企业文化 绩效管理 商务礼仪 励志书籍/材料 人事档案/员工关系 薪酬管理 招聘面试 咨询培训 劳动就业 劳务/用工合同 其它文档
  • 办公文档 >
    办公文档
    思想汇报 工作计划 调研报告 求职简历 通知/协议 演讲致辞 合同协议 学习计划 职业规划 自我鉴定 面试技巧 申请书 招标投标 传真信函
  • 行业资料 >
    行业资料
    食品饮料 化学工业 展会/博览会 国内外标准规范 造纸印刷 纺织服装 家居行业 酒店餐饮 物流与供应链 室内设计 工业设计 家电行业 生活/日用品 航海/船舶 水产/渔业 传媒/媒体 公共安全/评价 畜牧/养殖 林业/苗木 园艺/花卉 农作物 轻工业/手工业 教育/培训 零售业 水利工程 农业工程 系统集成 冶金工业 金属学与工艺 社会学 武器工业 能源与动力工程 原子能技术 文化创意 航空/航天 石油/天然气工业 矿业工程 交通运输 旅游娱乐 实验/测试 其它行业文档
  • 经济/贸易/财会 >
    经济/贸易/财会
    经济学 资产评估/会计 贸易 市场分析 网络营销/经济 商品学 进出口许可 财政/国家财政 税收 稽查与征管/审计 综合/其它
  • 学术论文 >
    学术论文
    毕业论文 期刊/会议论文 管理论文 大学论文 开题报告 社科论文 文学论文 经济论文 法律论文 医学论文 哲学论文 艺术论文 通讯论文 自然科学论文 论文指导/设计 其它学术论文
  • 研究报告 >
    研究报告
    信息产业 农林牧渔 统计年鉴/数据分析 商业贸易 产业政策 石油化工 金融 教育 冶金 轻工 交通 制药行业 安防行业 煤炭 新能源 国防军事 技术指导 综合/其它
  • 资格认证/考试 >
    资格认证/考试
    本科教育 研究生教育 英语学习 资格考试 小学教育 幼儿教育 中学教育 高中教育 公务员考试 专升本考试 建造师考试 教师资格考试 全国翻译资格认证 成考 自考 司法考试 微软认证 网络工程师认证 注册会计师 医师/药师资格考试 会计职称考试 报关员资格考试 人力资源管理师 安全工程师考试 出国培训 资产评估师考试 技工职业技能考试 银行/金融从业资格 计算机等级考试 营养师认证 物流师考试 证券从业资格考试 注册税务师 理财规划师 建筑师考试 质量管理体系认证 其它考试类文档
  • 研究生/硕士 >
    研究生/硕士
    专业课 考研政治 考研数学 考研英语 MBA/MPA 法律硕士 辅导咨询 综合/其它
  • 高等教育 >
    高等教育
    大学课件 研究生课件 工学 理学 习题/试题 历史学 农学 教育学 哲学 科普读物 政治/理论 专业基础教材 生物学 语言学 微积分 统计学 实验设计 其它相关文档
  • 中学教育 >
    中学教育
    论文 报告 演讲稿 计划 教学课件 高考 中考 高中教育 初中教育 职业教育 中学学案 中学作文 中学实验 高考英语 试题/考题 竞赛题 教学研究 体育理论与教学 音乐美术 视频课件/素材 其它中学文档
  • 幼儿/小学教育 >
    幼儿/小学教育
    小说 培训招生 幼儿教育 小学课件 学习方法 小学教育 课外知识 小学学案 小学考试 爱心教育 其它小学文档
  • 换一换
    首页 悦读文库 > 资源分类 > PDF文档下载
     

    Plant (Eye Wonder)

    • 资源ID:30       资源大小:67.00KB        全文页数:48页
    • 资源格式: PDF        下载权限:游客/注册会员/VIP会员    下载费用:5
    快捷注册下载 游客一键下载
    会员登录下载
    三方登录下载: 微信快捷登录 QQ登录   微博登录  
    下载资源需要5
    邮箱/手机:
    温馨提示:
    支付成功后,系统会自动生成账号(用户名和密码都是您填写的邮箱或者手机号),方便下次登录下载和查询订单;
    支付方式: 微信支付   
    验证码:   换一换

    加入VIP,免费下载资源
     
    友情提示
    2、PDF文件下载后,可能会被浏览器默认打开,此种情况可以点击浏览器菜单,保存网页到桌面,既可以正常下载了。
    3、本站不支持迅雷下载,请使用电脑自带的IE浏览器,或者360浏览器、谷歌浏览器下载即可。
    4、本站资源下载后的文档和图纸-无水印,预览文档经过压缩,下载后原文更清晰   

    Plant (Eye Wonder)

    Eye Wonderflexpaper.studylead.comFirst published in Great Britain in 2005 byDorling Kindersley Limited80 Strand, London WC2R 0RLA Penguin Company2 4 6 8 10 9 7 5 3 1Copyright 2005 Dorling Kindersley Limited, LondonA CIP catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library.All rights reserved. No part of this publication may bereproduced, stored in a retri system, or transmitted inany or by any means, electronic, mechanical,photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the priorwritten permission of the copyright owner.ISBN 1-4053-0598-3Colour reproduction by Colourscan, SingaporePrinted and bound in Italy by L.E.G.O.see our completecatalogue atwww.dk.comWritten and edited by Fleur StarDesigned by Janet AllisPublishing manager Sue LeonardManaging art editor Clare SheddenJacket design Chris DrewPicture researcher Sarah PownallProduction Luca BazzoliDTP Designer Almudena DazConsultant Sandra BellLONDON, NEW YORK, MUNICH, MELBOURNE, and DELHI4-5 What is a plant6-7 Grow up8-9 Putting down roots10-11 Leaf it out12-13 Food factories14-15 Pollination16-17 Flower partners18-19 Going to seed20-21 Carried away22-23 On the menu24-25 Plant protection26-27 Tree typesContentsflexpaper.studylead.com28-29 Tree house30-31 Muscling in32-33 Meat-eaters34-35 Creepers and climbers36-37 Water worlds38-39 On dry land40-41 Cold climate42-43 Plant providers44-45 Strange but true46-47Glossary48 Index and acknowledgementsflexpaper.studylead.com4Life on Earth is divided intoplants, animals, and fungi.There are thought to beabout 400,000 species ofplants in the world. The firstplants – algae, which live in water – appeared about 3 billion years ago.Plant partsEvery part of a plant hasa job to do. Leaves makefood, the stem carrieswater, and flowers makeseeds. All floweringplants have the same basicmake-up, evenif they lookquite different.What is a plantFlowerFlower budLeaf budRootsPlant needsA plant needs four things to survive sunlight,water, minerals, and air. Minerals come fromthe soil, while air provides the gases forbreathing and photosynthesis making food.WoodystemLeaf Roots divide tohold the plantin the ground.StalkHibiscus plantSunlight WaterMinerals from soilAir Anthersflexpaper.studylead.comIs it a plantLichen, seen here growing onrotten trees, is a partnership ofalgae and fungi. Unlike algae,lichen and fungi are notplants because they donot make their own foodthrough photosynthesis.First plantsNon-flowering plants, such asferns and mosses, are amongthe oldest plants in theworld. About 300 millionyears ago great forests ofthem covered the land.Ferns and mossesdo not have seeds,but reproduce from spores.First flowersAncient fossils show that someof the first flowers looked verymuch like magnolias. Theyshare features that not allplants have, such as havingmany anthers.Lichen growingon trees isusually grey,green, or yellow.flexpaper.studylead.comGrow upGerminate When a seedstarts growing into a plant.Root The part of a plant that grows underground andabsorbs water and nutrients.Shoot Any part of a plantthat grows above ground, such as the stem or leaves.Plant wordsInside storyTo start growing, a seedneeds air, water, and the right temperature.The seed absorbs air andwater, which makes itswell and split. Then thefirst root breaks through.The first shoot ismade up of theleaves and stem.A seed is a pocket-sized plant. It contains everything that a plant has leaves, stems, and roots, plus food, or nutrients,for the time the plant is inside the seed. Some seeds can liearound for years waiting for the right conditions to grow.6Rootflexpaper.studylead.comReach for the SunAs soon as the leaves are out, theybegin to catch sunlight to makefood. Now the plant has grown, the seed will shrivel because it is no longer needed.Cracking upYoung plants aresurprisingly strong. Theycan force their way up throughrocks, tarmac and cracks in thepavement. You might be ableto find some growing throughyour garden pathRoots keep theplant fixed firmlyin the ground.Taking rootRoots spread outunderground to absorbwater and nutrientsfrom the earth. Theyare covered in hairs to take in as muchwater as possible.7flexpaper.studylead.com8Roots do two things they anchor plants and keep them secure, and they absorb water and food. Some roots have weird and wonderful ways of doing thisPutting down rootsFar outRoots can only growwhere there is water.Tree roots near thesurface grow outwards,up to four times thewidth of the tree.Other roots can digdown deep enough tobreak through sewers.Storage systemNot everything underground is a root. Bulbs are food storagesystems that contain theleaves and stems of newplants. When the plantgrows, the roots descend.Stuck in the mudMangroves live in swamps. Theirhuge prop roots support the stemsto stop them being washed away.The tangled roots also trap mud,which has nutrients for the tree.flexpaper.studylead.com9Big buttsWhen trees grow inshallow soil, such as in rainforests, their rootsmight grow above thesurface of the ground.These are buttress roots,which keep the treestable. Some cangrow to 4.5 m 15 ft tall.GRASS ROOTSIn 1937, an American scientist called Howard Dittmerstudied the roots of a rye grass plant. The plant was just50 cm 20 in tall, and had 80 shoots. But ithad more than 620 km 380 miles of roots They could cover an area of 237 sq m 2,554 sq ft, enough to carpet a large house. And thisdoesn’t include the 14 billion root hairsflexpaper.studylead.comAll leaves are made up of a blade on a stalk, buteach different kind has it own shape, colour, andway of growing. This is because plants have leavesthat suit the environment in which they grow.Leaf it outCactus plants have spinesinstead of leaves.Leaves are covered in waxto stop them drying out in thesunlight and wind.Tea is made from the leavesof the tea plant. 500 g 1 lb oftea leaves can make 300 cups.Leaf factsLeaf typesMost plants have simpleleaves, which means theyhave a single blade comingoff the stalk. Each leaf growsfrom a bud. Other plantshave compound leaves, madeup of individual leaflets.MidribPalmate leaves look like hands. They can be simple orcompound, like thishorse chestnut.Many pine trees grow incold places. Their needlesare thin and pointed toshake off snow.A variegated leaf has spotsof different colours, whichcome from chemicalsinside the leaf.VariegatedNeedlesPalmateSimpleVeinStalkLeaf blade10flexpaper.studylead.comThe “leaves” of wildasparagus are reallyfeathery stems thatcan stand up to gales.What a dripLeaves cannot absorb water,so they have drainage systemsto stop them drowning. Watercollects in ridges and runs off a“drip-tip” on the end of the leaf.Changing colourLeaves get their greencolour from chlorophyll,which they use to makefood. When the leavesrest in the autumn, thechlorophyll fades away,revealing the reds and yellows of otherchemicals in the leaf.The leaflets of a compoundleaf grow straight from thestalk, not from buds.CompoundFeatherySome leaves turn red fromwaste productsstored inside.11Drip-tipflexpaper.studylead.comPlants are unique – they are the only livingthings that make their own food. This process iscalled photosynthesis, which can only happen inthe daytime because it uses sunlight.Food factoriesWhat’s cookingLeaves take in sunlight, carbondioxide CO2 from the air, andwater from the roots and mixthem together using chlorophyll.This recipe makes glucose, a type of sugary plant food, and oxygen.Plants losewater andgases fromtheir leaves.SunlightGoing greenThis close-up of a leaf showsgreen dots inside the cells.These are the stores ofchlorophyll, and they giveleaves their green colour.Air holesThe carbon dioxide usedin photosynthesis is takenin through stomata, tinyholes on the surface ofevery leaf. They also“breathe out” any extraoxygen that the plant doesnot use for respiration.CarbondioxideOxygenOpenstomataPhotosynthesis The uniqueway plants make their own food.Respiration How livingthings turn food into energy.Chlorophyll A chemicalfound inside leaves that is used for photosynthesis.Leaf wordsflexpaper.studylead.com13Spare CO2thathas not been usedfor making food is released back into the air.Energy sourceLike all living things, plantsget energy from food. This iscalled respiration. Plants useoxygen to turn food intoenergy, which helps them to grow. The oxygen comes from the air or from photosynthesis.Closed for the nightRespiration occurs 24 hoursa day, but photosynthesisstops at night when there isno sun. Many plants closetheir stomata at night asthey rest. Oxygen and CO2can still pass in and out ofthe leaf cells even thoughthe stomata are shut.WaterOxygenCarbondioxideClosed stomataflexpaper.studylead.comWatch a patch of flowers on asummer’s day and you will soon see a bee or a butterfly. Many flowersneed these insects for pollination thetransfer of pollen from plant to plant.PollinationLanding lightsThis flower looks plain yellow to us,but insects can see ultra-violet light.This shows up patterns on flowerscalled nectar guides. They point outexactly where the nectar is in theflower, leading insects straight to it. OvaryAntherStigmaA honeybee may visit10,000 flowers in one day.Bees account for 80 per cent of all insect pollination.Some plants rely on thesame insect for pollination,others may be pollinated byseveral different insects.Pollination factsTake a close lookPollination happens when pollen fromone plant’s anthers is carried to thestigma of another. The pollen thenfertilizes an egg in the ovary, the first step to making a seed. StyleNormal light Ultra-violet lightAntherPetalflexpaper.studylead.comBusy as a beeBees pollinate many of theworld’s crops, from apples and pears to cucumbers andmelons. They zip between the flowers at the dizzyspeed of 24 kph 15 mph.A good dustingWhen a bee lands ona flower, its body isdusted with pollen. Itcollects this pollen inpollen baskets on itsback legs, but enoughis left to pollinateother flowers.The bee uses itsproboscis to suck upnectar to take backto the hive.PollenMagnified many times, pollengrains are differently shapeddepending on their parent plant.Some have spiky casings.The bee mixes pollenwith nectar, makingit sticky so it stays inthe pollen baskets.15flexpaper.studylead.comA carpenter bee buzzes atthe right pitch to shake loosethe pollen of a gentian flower.The dead-horse arum stinksof rotting meat to attractblow-flies.Moths seek pale yellow or white flowers at night.Perfect pairsJust like you might prefer one drink to another, some animals will choose todrink nectar from certain plants. Andthese plants will try all sorts of tricks to attract their chosen pollinator.Flower partnersGoing battyIn the deserts of North America,long-nosed bats feed from centuryplants. The bat’s thick fur picks uplots of pollen as it buries its headin the flower for a drink of nectar.Fly-by feederHummingbirds can access flowers that other birdscannot reach, because they are the only birdsthat can hover in mid-air. Flowers that wantto attract birds are usually coloured red.Bee mineBee orchids look andsmell like female beesto attract male bees.There are around 130types of bee orchid inEurope that impersonatedifferent kinds of bees.Smelling right is asimportant aslooking pretty. 16flexpaper.studylead.comLap it upIn New Zealand, flax plants provide atasty drink for geckos. As they climb upthe stem and drink from the flower, theyget pollen all over their chins.Running wildTiny honey possums inAustralia clamber all overthe flowers of a banksiaplant to gather nectar. Of course, they get coveredin pollen while doing soThe yellowpollen stains the gecko’s chin.17flexpaper.studylead.comFlowering plants reproduce by makingseeds, which happens after a plant hasbeen pollinated. Seeds are valuable andneed protecting, so a plant will growfruit to cover the seeds.From blossom to appleAn apple tree’s white blossomappears in the spring. When the blossom ispollinated, it makesseeds. Then an applegrows from each blossom to protect the seeds. By autumn, the apple is fully grown and ready to eatGoing to seedSeed headA sunflower is made up of lots of little flowers, each of which make a seedwhen it is pollinated. There arearound 1,000 seeds inside justone sunflower head. Every seedis surrounded by its own case. Sunflower seedscan be roastedand eaten in salads. 18SeedsSeedsflexpaper.studylead.comScores of sporesNon-flowering plants donot have seeds. Ferns havespores instead, which canbe seen on the underside ofthe leaves. When the sporesare ripe, they fall off the leaf.Wooden fruitNot all fruit is edible the fruit of pinetrees are wooden cones. Pine treestake two years to make seeds, whichare kept safe inside the cones. Whenthe seeds are ready, the cones burstopen. The seeds fall to the ground,where many will be eaten by forestanimals and birds.Spores onunderside ofa fern leaf.Sprouting spudsHave you ever seen an old, wrinkly potato It probably has “eyes” –green buds that will growinto new plants. Potatoesare not seeds, but tubers,which are underground food stores for the plant.Strawberries have seeds,but new plants grow moreeasily from runners.New potato plants sprouting.19Seedsflexpaper.studylead.com20Plants spread their seeds so they can grow in new places. This is called seed dispersal. It gives the seeds a chance to find sunlight,water, and food that are not already being used by the parent plant or by other seeds.Carried awayGet stuck inHave you ever let a pet dog run infields It might have come back withburrs in its fur. Burrs are seeds withsticky or spiky coats that grip animalfur, later falling off onto new ground.SPIT OUT THE SEEDSThe Mediterranean squirting cucumberhas a messy of seed dispersal. As it grows, each cucumber fruit fills withslime until there’s no more room. Then,suddenly... POP The fruit bursts, comesoff its stalk, and flies through the airlike a rocket for 6 m 20 ft, sprayingslime and seedsbehind it.Just passing throughFruit is tasty and colourful to getanimals to eat it. Animalsswallow seeds with thefruit. When the seedshave passed throughthe animal, they arefar away from theparent plant.A flying startImpatiens are a group of gardenplants sometimes called “touch-me-nots”. Their seed pods areready to burst at the slightesttouch. Seeds are flung out,although they don’t travel far.The pod pushes the seeds forward.flexpaper.studylead.comGo with the flowCoconuts may be one of thelargest seeds, but they arehollow and light enough tofloat. This way they can travelacross oceans, and they havebeen known to survive journeysof 1,600 km 1,000 miles.Propeller poweredSycamore seeds are amongthe heaviest to ride on thewind. Their shape workslike a helicopter rotor,spinning round in the breeze so the seeds travel further.Thewindwillcarrytheseseedsanykilometres.Blowing in the windA dandelion seed is so light it can be blown away by thew

    注意事项

    本文(Plant (Eye Wonder))为本站会员(admin)主动上传,悦读文库仅提供信息存储空间,仅对用户上传内容的表现方式做保护处理,对上载内容本身不做任何修改或编辑。 若此文所含内容侵犯了您的版权或隐私,请立即通知悦读文库(发送邮件至studylead@qq.com或直接QQ联系客服),我们立即给予删除!

    温馨提示:如果因为网速或其他原因下载失败请重新下载,重复下载不扣分。




    copyright@ 2008-2017 悦读文库网站版权所有
    经营许可证编号:京ICP备18064502号-1

    页脚二维码
    收起
    展开