欢迎来到悦读文库! | 帮助中心 行业资源交流与分享平台
悦读文库
全部分类
  • 招标采购 >
    招标采购
    常用模板/表格 PPT模板库 往来文书 工作总结 活动策划 工作计划 规章制度 解决方案 调研文书 事务文书 股份制文书 统计图表 简明教程 招标投标 传真信函 会议纪要 产品手册 课程设计 教学培训范文 通知/申请 求职简历 说明文档 演讲稿/致辞 其它办公文档
  • 商业/管理/HR >
    商业/管理/HR
    4a 4c 商业计划书 创业/孵化 市场营销 经营企划 销售管理 营销创新 宣传企划 资本运营 代理连锁/招商加盟 商业合同/协议 公司方案 企业信息化/信息管 管理学资料 企业文档 广告经营 财务报表 项目/工程管理 物业管理 质量控制/管理 企业文化 绩效管理 商务礼仪 励志书籍/材料 人事档案/员工关系 薪酬管理 招聘面试 咨询培训 劳动就业 劳务/用工合同 其它文档
  • 办公文档 >
    办公文档
    思想汇报 工作计划 调研报告 求职简历 通知/协议 演讲致辞 合同协议 学习计划 职业规划 自我鉴定 面试技巧 申请书 招标投标 传真信函
  • 行业资料 >
    行业资料
    食品饮料 化学工业 展会/博览会 国内外标准规范 造纸印刷 纺织服装 家居行业 酒店餐饮 物流与供应链 室内设计 工业设计 家电行业 生活/日用品 航海/船舶 水产/渔业 传媒/媒体 公共安全/评价 畜牧/养殖 林业/苗木 园艺/花卉 农作物 轻工业/手工业 教育/培训 零售业 水利工程 农业工程 系统集成 冶金工业 金属学与工艺 社会学 武器工业 能源与动力工程 原子能技术 文化创意 航空/航天 石油/天然气工业 矿业工程 交通运输 旅游娱乐 实验/测试 其它行业文档
  • 经济/贸易/财会 >
    经济/贸易/财会
    经济学 资产评估/会计 贸易 市场分析 网络营销/经济 商品学 进出口许可 财政/国家财政 税收 稽查与征管/审计 综合/其它
  • 学术论文 >
    学术论文
    毕业论文 期刊/会议论文 管理论文 大学论文 开题报告 社科论文 文学论文 经济论文 法律论文 医学论文 哲学论文 艺术论文 通讯论文 自然科学论文 论文指导/设计 其它学术论文
  • 研究报告 >
    研究报告
    信息产业 农林牧渔 统计年鉴/数据分析 商业贸易 产业政策 石油化工 金融 教育 冶金 轻工 交通 制药行业 安防行业 煤炭 新能源 国防军事 技术指导 综合/其它
  • 资格认证/考试 >
    资格认证/考试
    本科教育 研究生教育 英语学习 资格考试 小学教育 幼儿教育 中学教育 高中教育 公务员考试 专升本考试 建造师考试 教师资格考试 全国翻译资格认证 成考 自考 司法考试 微软认证 网络工程师认证 注册会计师 医师/药师资格考试 会计职称考试 报关员资格考试 人力资源管理师 安全工程师考试 出国培训 资产评估师考试 技工职业技能考试 银行/金融从业资格 计算机等级考试 营养师认证 物流师考试 证券从业资格考试 注册税务师 理财规划师 建筑师考试 质量管理体系认证 其它考试类文档
  • 研究生/硕士 >
    研究生/硕士
    专业课 考研政治 考研数学 考研英语 MBA/MPA 法律硕士 辅导咨询 综合/其它
  • 高等教育 >
    高等教育
    大学课件 研究生课件 工学 理学 习题/试题 历史学 农学 教育学 哲学 科普读物 政治/理论 专业基础教材 生物学 语言学 微积分 统计学 实验设计 其它相关文档
  • 中学教育 >
    中学教育
    论文 报告 演讲稿 计划 教学课件 高考 中考 高中教育 初中教育 职业教育 中学学案 中学作文 中学实验 高考英语 试题/考题 竞赛题 教学研究 体育理论与教学 音乐美术 视频课件/素材 其它中学文档
  • 幼儿/小学教育 >
    幼儿/小学教育
    小说 培训招生 幼儿教育 小学课件 学习方法 小学教育 课外知识 小学学案 小学考试 爱心教育 其它小学文档
  • 换一换
    首页 悦读文库 > 资源分类 > PDF文档下载
     

    [DK.一系列书籍].Dinosaur.(e.guides.Series).pdf

    • 资源ID:54       资源大小:67.00KB        全文页数:95页
    • 资源格式: PDF        下载权限:游客/注册会员/VIP会员    下载费用:5
    快捷注册下载 游客一键下载
    会员登录下载
    三方登录下载: 微信快捷登录 QQ登录   微博登录  
    下载资源需要5
    邮箱/手机:
    温馨提示:
    支付成功后,系统会自动生成账号(用户名和密码都是您填写的邮箱或者手机号),方便下次登录下载和查询订单;
    支付方式: 微信支付   
    验证码:   换一换

    加入VIP,免费下载资源
     
    友情提示
    2、PDF文件下载后,可能会被浏览器默认打开,此种情况可以点击浏览器菜单,保存网页到桌面,既可以正常下载了。
    3、本站不支持迅雷下载,请使用电脑自带的IE浏览器,或者360浏览器、谷歌浏览器下载即可。
    4、本站资源下载后的文档和图纸-无水印,预览文档经过压缩,下载后原文更清晰   

    [DK.一系列书籍].Dinosaur.(e.guides.Series).pdf

    flexpaper.studylead.come.guidesDinosaurWritten by Dougal Dixonand John Malam flexpaper.studylead.comflexpaper.studylead.comFEEDING 52DIGESTIVE SYSTEMS 54ATTACK 56DEFENSE 58WINNING A MATE 60BODY TEMPERATURE 62BRAINS AND INTELLIGENCE 64SENSES 66GROWING UP 68DEATH AND DISEASE 70PACK HUNTERS 72HUNTER OR SCAVENGER 74HERDING DINOSAURS 76NESTING COLONIES 78CHANGING FACES 80DINOSAURS ON DISPLAY 82REFERENCE SECTIONEVOLUTION 84CLASSIFICATION 85PROFILES 86BIOGRAPHIES 90GLOSSARY 93INDEX 94ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 96HOW TO USE THE WEB SITE 6WHAT IS A DINOSAUR 8THE BIRD CONNECTION 10ERA OF THE DINOSAURS 12UP IN THE AIR 14BELOW THE WAVES 16DINOSAUR HABITATS 18THE END OF THE DINOSAURS 20TURNING TO STONE 22EARLY DISCOVERIES 24FOSSIL SITES 26IN THE FIELD 28BODY FOSSILS 30TRACE FOSSILS 32EXAMINING FOOTPRINTS 34IN THE LAB 36COMPUTER RECONSTRUCTION 37DATING FOSSILS 38RECONSTRUCTING THE PAST 40BIPEDAL CARNIVORES 42LONG-NECKED HERBIVORES 44BIPEDAL HERBIVORES 46HORNED AND ARMORED 48MOVING AROUND 50CONTENTS5flexpaper.studylead.comhttp//www.dinosaur.dke-guides.comHow to use the Web sitee.guides Dinosaur has its own Web site, created by DK and Google™. When you look up a subject in the book, the article gives you key facts and displays a keyword that links you to extra ination online. Just follow these easy steps.You can only use the keywords from the book to searchon our Web site for the specially selected DK/Google links.Enter this Web site address21Find the keyword in the book3 Enter the keywordhttp//www.dinosaur.dke-guides.comNOTE Dorling Kindersley has made every effort to link to external Web sites that are reputable, relevant, and appropriate, however, neither DK nor Google are in anyway responsible for or able to control the content of these Web sites. If, however, youdo find any broken or incorrect links, or if you find content that you think isinappropriate, or if you just want to send us your comments, please email us.fossils6Top search tips from GoogleInternet safelyChoosing the right siteParent and teacher adviceOur Privacy PolicyEnter any keyword from the book in the box below. this boxappears throughout the Web site.Download and print out free images to use in your projects.Address DK and Google bring to you the best of the Web.Find out about how to use the book and the Web site.Enter your next keyword hereSign up for our newsletter.Useful ination foronline researchersSIGN UP FOR OURNEWSLETTER Dorling Kindersley 2004you and the InternetTERMS CONDITIONSe.explore.dinosaure.explore.dinosaurInternet zoneMailPrintHomeRefreshStopForwardgoAddress http //Backfossilsflexpaper.studylead.com Always get permission from an adult beforeconnecting to the Internet. Never give out personal ination aboutyourself. Never arrange to meet someone you have talked to online. If a site asks you to log in with your name or emailaddress, ask permission from an adult first. Do not reply to emails from strangerstell anadult.Parents Dorling Kindersley actively and regularly reviews and updatesthe links. However, content may change. Dorling Kindersley is notresponsible for any site but its own. We recommend that children aresupervised while online, that they do not use Chat Rooms, and that filteringsoftware is used to block unsuitable material.Links include animations, videos, soundbuttons, virtual tours, interactive quizzes,databases, timelines, and real-time reports.The pictures are free of charge, but can be used for personal, non-commercial use only.Go back to the book for your next subject...45Be safe while you are onlineClick on your chosen link... Download fantastic pictures...Watch how fossils .Triceratops skeletonNOTE Dorling Kindersley has made every effort to link to external Web sites that arereputable, relevant, and appropriate, however, neither DK nor Google are in any wayresponsible for or able to control the content of these Web sites. If, however, you dofind any broken or incorrect links, or if you find content that you think isinappropriate, or if you just want to send us your comments, please email us.Pictures | Dinosaurs7Top search tips from GoogleInternet safelyChoosing the right siteParent and teacher adviceOur Privacy PolicyPlay a fossil quiz.Click here for related links you may find usefulExamine two dinosaurs locked in combat.Useful ination foronline researchersFind out more about dinosaur eggs.Watch how fossils .Fossils link, pages 22–23, 30–33Free images to download and printEnter your next keyword hereyou and the InternetSIGN UP FOR OURNEWSLETTERclick on the text below Dorling Kindersley 2004Pictures | Spacee.explore.dinosaurTERMS CONDITIONSInternet zonegoHOMEMailPrintHomeRefreshStopForwardAddress http //e.explore.dinosaur researchers recommend BackGoogle Directory | Spaceflexpaper.studylead.comWHAT IS A DINOSAURIn the middle of the 1800s, the first fossil skeletons of someextraordinary creatures were unearthed. These skeletons are of thedinosaursprehistoric reptiles that have captured the imaginationsof people ever since. Dinosaurs, which means “terrible lizards,”ruled the world for more than 160 million years before they diedout 65 million years ago. Everything we know about them hascome from the examination of skeletons, or bits of skeletons,found by paleontologists, the dinosaur-hunters of themodern world, and by other scientists. ≥ GIGANOTOSAURUSTo find out more about the remains that arefound, scientists reconstruct dinosaurs, sometimesfrom only a few fragments of fossilized bone or askull. The fossils of this Giganotosaurus have toldscientists a great deal about how this creaturelived. The way that the hips and legs are puttogether shows that it was able to run after prey.The clawed feet and rows of teeth are evidencethat once Giganotosaurus had caught the prey, the carnivore was equipped to tear it apart.≤ LEG BONESDinosaurs were archosaursa group of reptilesthat contained crocodiles, alligators, andflying pterosaurs. However, the legs of mostreptiles stick out at the side and the body is slung beneath. Those of a dinosaur are more like those of a mammal. They arevertical, supporting the weight of the bodyabove them. There is a ball-shaped plug at thehead of the thighbone femur that protrudessideways. This fits into a socket in the side ofthe hipbones. A shelf of bone above thesocket prevents the leg from popping out.≤ HIPBONESDinosaurs are divided into two separategroups based on the structure of their hipbones. The groups are called the“saurischians” and the “ornithischians.” Thesaurischians had hipbones like a modernlizardthe three hipbones radiating awayfrom the socket that held the leg, and thepubisbone pointing down and forward. Theornithischians had hipbones like a modernbirdthe pubis sweeping back along theischium, while a pair of extensions to thepubis reached forward. Hips and legsallowed dinosaur to move feet easilyforward andbackward HYPSILOPHODON ORNITHISCHIAN “BIRD-HIPPED” TYRANNOSAURUSHIND LIMBSHead of femur fits into hip socket 8GALLIMIMUS SAURISCHIAN “LIZARD-HIPPED” Femur thighboneHipboneTibiashinboneflexpaper.studylead.com≤ SKULLSDinosaur skulls were usually open latticeworks of bony struts. That is whythey are rarethey fell to pieces too easily and have been lost. Only thehorned dinosaurs had solid skulls. The saurischians and the ornithischians hadroughly the same arrangement of bones in the skull. The ornithischian skullhad an extra bone at the front of the lower jaw called the predentary. This usually held the lower half of a birdlike beak.FORELIMBS Different species of dinosaurshad different kinds offorelimbs. The carnivores, suchas Baryonyx, usually had long,grasping claws on the fingersfor killing or tearing flesh. Theherbivores, such as Iguanodon,may have had grasping fingersto hold their plant food whenstanding on their hind legs.They would also have hadweight-bearing hooves oving around on all fours.The heavy, long-neckedherbivores, such as Diplodocus,had strong forefeet like thehind feet, needed for bearingthe huge body weight. Front limbs were shorterthan the hind limbs inthis group of carnivoresIGUANODON HANDThree weight-bearinghoovesLight but strong skullBARYONYX CLAWSpike onthumb for useas a weaponor a toolCurved clawfor slashingprey 9Prehensiblefifth fingerfor graspingWeight-bearingtoesPSITTACOSAURUS SKULLORNITHISCHIANALLOSAURUS SKULLSAURISCHIANTooth row set in from edgeDIPLODOCUSFORELIMBSmall clawsfor graspingTeeth withedge of jawPredentary bone Eye socketNostrildinosaursflexpaper.studylead.comTHE BIRD CONNECTIONThere are dinosaurs flying in our skies todaydespite more than a centuryof arguments, most scientists now believe that small meat-eating dinosaursevolved into birds. The development of feathers turned dinosaurs that couldrun or climb into birds that could fly. The earliest true bird is Archaeopteryx,which lived during the late Jurassic in the area known today as southernGermany. A small hunting dinosaur called Compsognathus also lived in thatarea at that time. Archaeopteryx looked like a cross between a reptile and a bird, and it had strong legs and feathers that it would have used to fly.Compsognathus was birdlike, with long back legs and hollow bones. COMPSOGNATHUS SKELETON Compsognathus was one of the first dinosaurs discovered. Thefirst skeleton was unearthed in 1859. It had long jaws, sharpteeth, a small body, strong hind legs with three-toed feet, anda heavy tail. Its long hind legs were built for running, and theclaws and teeth show it to have been a hunter. It looks justlike the skeleton of any other meat-eating dinosaur. ≤ EFFICIENT HUNTERCompsognathus “pretty jaw” looked like a tiny version of thehuge meat-eaters that lived during the late Jurassic. Yet, despiteits sharp claws and teeth, it was only the size of a chicken. It wasan agile hunter, chasing small animals that included insects andfast-moving lizards. It ran swiftly along on its two back legs, itslong tail balancing it as it made fast turns in pursuit of its prey. 10854321 8SIMILARITIES BETWEENCOMPSOGNATHUS ANDARCHAEOPTERYXBony tail coreAnkle jointLong legsShort bodyEnlarged breastboneTeeth in long, slim jawsSlim, flexible neckLong, clawed fingersTail had about40 bonesIschiumIn the saurischianlizardlike hip, orilium, the pubisangles forward Backboneheld straightSlim bodyElongated footbone Three-toed feetwith claws to holddown preyLong fingers for grasping preyTail usedto balanceKeen eyesight tospot preySlender headNeat jaws withsharp teethLong, slenderleg bone perfectfor running1234567Pubisflexpaper.studylead.com≤ FLYING DINOSAURArchaeopteryx had wings, with flying feathersarranged just like those of amodern bird, and its body wascovered in feathers. However, ithad the head, clawed hands, andlong, bony tail of a dinosaur. It livedon tropical desert islands and walked and fluttered after its flying insect prey. It could not have flown very far or very fast as it did not have strong flight muscles.ARCHAEOPTERYX SKELETON The skeleton of Archaeopteryx closelyresembles that of Compsognathus. Only afew examples of Archaeopteryx skeletonshave been found, and one of these was only identified in 1987although it had been in a German museum for many decades, paleontologists had thought it was a Compsognathus. The presence of awishbone and the length of the arms are themain differences between these two animals. To the modern eye, birds do not look like dinosaurs,despite their ancestry. The skeletons of birds haveevolved over time, becoming much more lightweightthan that of either Compsognathus or Archaeopteryx.This means that the modern bird needs to use muchless energy to stay airborne. The heron is the modern bird whose shape most resemblesCompsognathus and Archaeopteryx. MODERN BIRDTail with 23bones, fewer thanCompsognathus112577643168dinosaursClawed fingers aresupports for the feathersSharp teeth lostand replaced by alightweight beakRibcage is a rigid casing, giving support to the muscleaction of the wingsTail is a shortstump, with a fanof tail feathersHorn-tipped clawson front of wings forgrasping branchesSharp teeth Lightweight skullFurculawishbonelike modernbirds Elongated legbones, likeCompsognathusFully reversedopposable firsttoe used to perchin all birdsA typical bird, such as this heron, has lostsome features that were common toCompsognathus and Archaeopteryx. Itdoes not have hand claws, toothed jaws, or a bony tail because they would not helpit to fly. Instead, the hand only supportsthe wing feathers, a lightweight hornybeak has replaced the teeth, and the tail is a muscular stump controlling a broadsurface of feathers.Large eye socketLarge eye socketSkull is lightweightbecause it has hollow bonesHipbones Longer arms thanCompsognathusUpper foot bones fusedinto a single boneHERON SKELETONGRAY HERON flexpaper.studylead.comERA OF THE DINOSAURSDinosaurs roamed the planet for about 165 millionyears, during a time in the Earth’s history called the Mesozoic Era. It is difficult for us to imaginehow long this was, until we compare it withourselves humans have lived on Earth forless than two million years. During theMesozoic Era, the Earth’s landmasseschanged dramatically, new seas wereed, and plants and animals evolved.≤ GEOLOGICAL TIMESCALEGeologists divide Earth’s long history into a series of timezones, from the origin of the planet, about 4.6 billion yearsago, right up to the present day. The major divisions are called eras. These are subdivided into smaller time zones called periods. Within each period are smaller divisionscalled Ages not shown in this diagram. Dinosaurs lived inthe Mesozoic Era, which is divided into the Triassic, Jurassic,and Cretaceous Periods. Humans live in the Quaternary Period of the Cenozoic Era.TRIASSIC ANIMALSThe first dinosaurs lived in theearly Triassic. Other reptilesalso lived in this period, suchas plant-eating rhynchosaurs.Fish and turtles swam in thesea, pterosaurs flapped theirleathery wings in the sky, andthe first mammals appeared.JURASSIC ANIMALSDinosaurs colonized the land,from huge plant-eating speciesto smaller meat-eating ones.Pterosaurs ruled the sky, thefirst birds appeared, andicthyosaurs and horseshoecrabs swam in the seas.JURASSIC PLANETPangaea split into northernand southern landmasses inthe Jurassic Period, divided bythe ocean. In time, the twonew continents moved apart.CRETACEOUS PLANET During the Cretaceous Period,Laurasia and Gondwana brokeup into several smaller parts,beginning the ation ofthe continents we have today.TRIASSIC PLANETIn the Triassic Period, all landwas joined together as onegreat landmass. Scientists callthis super-continent Pangaea,which means “All Earth.”TRIASSIC PERIOD 250–200 MILLION YEARS AGOJURASSIC PERIOD 200–145 MILLION YEARS AGOCRETACEOUS PERIOD 145–65 MILLION YEARS AGOFOSSILIZED HORSESHOE CRAB12FOSSILIZED RHYNCHOSAURUSFOSSILIZED DRAGONFLYPANGAEATETHYS SEATETHYS SEALAURASIAGONDW

    注意事项

    本文([DK.一系列书籍].Dinosaur.(e.guides.Series).pdf)为本站会员(admin)主动上传,悦读文库仅提供信息存储空间,仅对用户上传内容的表现方式做保护处理,对上载内容本身不做任何修改或编辑。 若此文所含内容侵犯了您的版权或隐私,请立即通知悦读文库(发送邮件至[email protected]或直接QQ联系客服),我们立即给予删除!

    温馨提示:如果因为网速或其他原因下载失败请重新下载,重复下载不扣分。




    [email protected] 2008-2017 悦读文库网站版权所有
    经营许可证编号:京ICP备18064502号-1

    页脚二维码
    收起
    展开