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    [DK.一系列书籍].Stars.and.Planets.(EYEWITNESS.WORKBOOKS).pdf

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    [DK.一系列书籍].Stars.and.Planets.(EYEWITNESS.WORKBOOKS).pdf

    STARS PLANETSFUN FILL-IN ACTIVITIES TURN-AND-LEARN INFO WHEEL FAST FACTS AT YOUR FINGERTIPSQUIZ PAGES STICKERSPARENT NOTESCURRICULUM-BASED CONTENT3333333Label space objectsLearn about the planetsMatch up star stickersFind out how scientists study spaceTake cool quizzesSee inside stars and planetsEYEWITNESS WORKBOOKSEYEWITNESS WORKBOOKSTEST YOUR KNOWLEDGEDISCOVER MORETURN AND LEARNAre you ready to take your knowledge of stars and planets to the next level This activity-packed workbook will help you go straight to the head of the class.Train your brain with activities, stickers, and quiz pagesCheck out the Fast Fact pages for knowledge on the goSpin the info wheel for staggering statistics on outer spaceOther titles in the seriesDiscover more atwww.dk.comNew from Eyewitness, workbooks that children will actually want to use flexpaper.studylead.comflexpaper.studylead.comby Claire WattsEYEWITNESS WORKBOOKSSTARS PLANETSflexpaper.studylead.comLONDON, NEW YORK,MELBOURNE, MUNICH, AND DELHIEducational Consultant Linda B. Gambrell,Distinguished Professor of Education,Clemson UniversityProject Editors Clare Hibbert, Sue MalyanArt Editors Sara Nunan, Peter RadcliffeSenior Editor Jane YorkeSenior Art Editor Owen Peyton JonesManaging Editor Camilla HallinanManaging Art Editor Martin WilsonPublishing Manager Sunita GahirCategory Publisher Andrea PinningtonDK Picture Library Claire Bowers, Rose HorridgeProduction Controller Lucy BakerDTP Designers Siu Chan, Andy Hilliard, Ronaldo JulienJacket Designer Neal CobourneFirst published in the United States in 2007 byDK Publishing 375 Hudson StreetNew York, New York 10014 07 08 09 10 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1ED518 – 05/07Copyright 2007 Dorling Kindersley LimitedAll rights reserved under International and Pan-American Copyright Conventions. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retri system, or transmitted in any or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the copyright owner. Published in Great Britain by Dorling Kindersley Limited. DK books are available at special discounts when purchased in bulk for sales promotions, premiums, fundraising, or educational use. For details, contact DK Publishing Special Markets,375 Hudson Street, New York, New York 10014SpecialSalesdk.comA catalog record for this book is available from the Library of CongressISBN 978-0-7566-3034-8Color reproduction by Media Development Printing Limited, UKPrinted and bound by Hua Yang Printing Limited, ChinaDiscover more atwww.dk.comContents4 How this book can help your childFast facts6 Stars and galaxies7 The solar system8 Planets9 Planet Earth10 The universe11 Looking at space12 Space travel13 Living in spaceflexpaper.studylead.comActivities14 The sky at night15 Star distances16 The life cycle of stars17 The Milky Way18 Stargazing20 Our nearest star21 Gravity in space22 Orbiting the Sun24 The inner planets25 Our home planet26 Moon-watching27 Observing an eclipse28 The red planet29 Giant planets30 Naming the planets31 Asteroids, comets, and meteors32 Expanding universe33 Space shuttle34 Astronauts35 Living in space36 Key dates of space explorationQuick quiz38 Discovering the universe39 Stars, galaxies, and constellations40 Planets and smaller space bodies41 The Sun and solar system 42 Earth and the Moon43 Astronauts and spacecraft44 Activity answers46 Quick quiz answers47 Progress chart48 CertificateTurn-to-learn wheelSolar system facts Space record breakersflexpaper.studylead.com06_07_ED518_FastFacts2.indd 6 12/27/06 53553 PM16_17_ED518_STars_planets.indd 2 1/15/07 33128 PMParents’ notesHow this book can help your childThe Eyewitness Workbooks series offers a fun and colorful range of stimulating titles on the subjects of history, science, and geography. Specially designed to appeal to children of 9 years and up, each workbook aims to develop a child’s knowledge of a popular topic provide practice of key skills and reinforce classroom learning nurture a child’s special interest in a subject.The series is devised and written with the expert advice of an educational consultant and supports the school curriculum.About this bookEyewitness Workbook Stars and Planets is an activity-packed exploration of the world of space and astronomy. Inside you will findThis section presents key ination as concise facts, which are easy to digest, learn, and remember. Encourage your child to start by reading through the valuable ination in the Fast facts section and studying the statistics on the Turn-to-learn wheel before trying out the activities.Fast facts ActivitiesThe enjoyable, fill-in activities are designed to develop ination recall and help your child practice cross-referencing skills. Each activity can be completed using ination provided on the page, in the Fast facts section, or on the Turn-to-learn wheel. Your child should work systematically through the book and tackle just one or two activity topics per session. Encourage your child by checking answers together and offering extra guidance when necessary.Each tiny star twinkling in the sky is a huge, distant ball of superhot gas, like our Sun. Each star is part of a group, called a galaxy, that may contain millions of stars. For thousands of years, astronomers gazing at the stars organized them into easily recognizable patterns, called constellations, to create a map of the skies.StarsStars and galaxiesFast factsThe sky at nightThe constellation of OrionTypes of galaxyKey facts Astronomers map the sky by dividing it into 88 areas. Each contains a different constellation. Different constellations can be seen from Earth’s Northern and Southern hemispheres. Constellations such as Orion that lie along the celestial equator can be seen from both hemispheres.ConstellationsAstronomers group the brightest stars into constellations. Many constellations are named after characters in ancient mythology, such as Orion and Andromeda. From Earth, the stars in a constellation appear to be close together. In fact, they are great distances apart, but lie in a similar direction to Earth.GalaxiesEvery star is part of a vast, spinning group of stars, gas, and dust called a galaxy. The matter in a galaxy is held together by the force of gravity. Galaxies are divided into three main types, according to their shape spiral, elliptical oval-shaped, or irregular.Spiral galaxyElliptical galaxyIrregular galaxyStars shown as points of light.Imaginary lines join the stars to an image of Orion.Key facts The tiniest dwarf galaxies contain only a few million stars, but giant galaxies can contain hundreds of billions of stars. There are about 100 billion galaxies in the part of the universe that we can observe. Our home galaxy, the Milky Way, contains about 200 billion stars. Galaxies are grouped together in clusters. A star is a huge ball of gas made up mainly of hydrogen. It has a temperature of tens of millions of degrees. The hydrogen fuels nuclear reactions that produce huge amounts of energy. Stars give off most of their energy as light and heat, but they also give off radiation, such as ultraviolet rays and X-rays.Key facts All stars look similar to the naked eye, but in fact they vary in their size, brightness, temperature, and color. The stars are hurtling through space at immense speed, but we cannot see this movement because they are so distant. Most stars part of a system containing two or more stars held together by gravity.06_07_ED518_US.indd 6 19/2/07 30121 pmLife and death of a starThe life cycle of starsOur Sun’s life will last about 10 billion years. When it runs out of fuel, the Sun will expand to a red giant. Bigger stars live only a few million years before they swell into supergiants. Stars that are smaller than our Sun may live 100 billion years.ActivitiesFind four star stickers and match them to the correct captions to complete the diagram.A nebula is a great cloud of dust and hydrogen gas. New stars are born in the nebula.A star begins to shine when nuclear reactions inside the core produce heat and light.When a massive star, hundreds of times bigger than our Sun, begins to run out of fuel, it cools down, glows red, and begins to swell into a red supergiant.The core of the supergiant eventually blasts apart in an explosion called a supernova. It can be as bright as a whole galaxy.The core of a supernova may collapse and become a very dense neutron starthat continues to spin through space.When a smaller star, like our Sun, runs low on fuel, it expands into a red giant.It glows red as it cools.The outer layers of gas puff out like a ring of smoke to a planetary nebula.The faint, shrunken remains of the star become a white dwarf.They glow white as they cool.When the star is so cool that it has stopped glowing, it s a black dwarf.Star knowledgeComplete the sentences by circling the correct answers. Use the ination on this page to help you.1. Our Sun will live for about 5 / 10 / 15 billion years.2. When the Sun eventually starts to cool down, it will expand and become a red giant / red supergiant / neutron star.3. A black dwarf is a star that is being ed / is shining / has stopped glowing.4. Black holes are ed when supernovas / small stars / nebulas collapse.16Did you knowA brown dwarf is a star that is too small to trigger nuclear reactions in its core. Instead of shining, it glows dimly.The core of a supernova may collapse to a black hole, an area of space with such powerful gravity that it sucks in everything, even light.16_17_ED518_US.indd 2 19/2/07 30438 pmflexpaper.studylead.com47_ED518_StarsPlanets.indd 47 20/1/07 14323648_ED518_StarsPlanets.indd 2 20/1/07 14223440_41_ED518_StarsPlanets.indd 40 1/26/07 50918 PM3Parents’ notesImportant ination Please stress upon your child the importance of heeding the warnings in this book. Never look directly at the Sun or try to view it using a telescope, binoculars, or a mirror. Only view a solar eclipse when wearing approved protective goggles, or view it indirectly with a pinhole camera. Be patient when observing the night sky outdoors, since it will take about 20 minutes for your eyes to adjust to the dark. Always dress warmly and use a red filter over a flashlight, so that it doesn’t affect your night vision.Turn-to-learn wheelThe Turn-to-learn wheel is a fun learning tool, packed with fascinating facts and figures about stars, planets, and more. Happy learningQuick quizThere are six pages of multiple-choice questions to test your child’s newfound knowledge of the subject. Children should only try answering the quiz questions once all of the activity section has been completed. As your child finishes each page of themed questions, check the answers together.CertificateThere is a certificate of achievement at the back of the book for your child to fill in, remove, and display on the wall.Answers and Progress chartAll the answers are supplied in full at the back of the book, so no prior knowledge of the subject is required.Use the Progress chart to motivate your child and be positive about his or her achievements. On the completion of each activity or quiz topic, reward good work with a gold star.PROGRESS CHART14Page Topic StarPage Topic Star Page Topic Star1516171819202122232425262728293031323334353637384041423943The inner planetsOur home planetMoon-watchingObserving an eclipseThe sky at nightStar distancesThe life cycle of starsThe Milky WayStargazing The red planetGiant planetsNamingthe planetsAsteroids, comets, and meteorsStargazingOur nearest starGravity in spaceOrbiting the SunOrbiting the SunExpandinguniverseSpace shuttleAstronautsLiving in spaceKey dates of space explorationKey dates of space explorationDiscovering the universeStars, galaxies,and constellationsPlanets and smaller space bodiesThe Sun and solar systemEarth and the MoonAstronautsand spacecraftChart your progress as you work through the activity and quiz pages in this book. First check your answers, then stick a gold star in the correct box below.47_ED518_US.indd 47 19/2/07 30818 pmCERTIFICATE OF EXCELLENCEStars PlanetsArewardcertificatefor youtofillin, tearout,anddisplay onyour wall.eyewitneSS workbookSCongratulations toName...........................................................for successfully completing this book onAward date...................................48_ED518_US.indd 2 19/2/07 31339 pm1Check all the different typesof planetPlanets and smaller space bodiesCheck or number the boxes to answer each question. Check your answers on page 46.a. smoothb. rockyc. gasd.metalQuick quiz402The clump of matter fromwhich a planet s iscalled aa. protoplanetb. miniplanetc. potential planetd.nebula3Check all the rocky planetsa. Earthb. Jupiterc. Marsd.Mercurye. Neptunef. Saturng. Uranush.Venus4Craters are made on aplanet’s surface bya. meteorites space rocksbombarding the planetb. spacecraft landing onthe planetc. volcanic eruptionsd.huge storms5Gas planets have a coremade ofa. dustb. liquidc. irond.rock10A shooting star isa. a star falling to Earthb. a meteor burning up as itenters Earth’s atmospherec. another name for a cometd.an asteroid exploding6Check all the things foundin the rings around the gasplanetsa. rockb. icec. metald.gas7A natural object that orbitsa planet is called itsa. ringb. asteroidc. moond.meteorite8Where is the asteroid belta. between the Sun andMercuryb. between Earth and Marsc. between Mars and Jupiterd.beyond Neptune9A comet’s glowing tail isreleased whena. the comet burns up inthe Earth’s atmosphereb. a nuclear reaction takesplace inside the cometc. the comet heats up as itnears the Sun40_41_ED518_US.indd 40 19/2/07 30552 pmflexpaper.studylead.comEach tiny star twinkling in the sky is a huge, distant ball of superhot gas, like our Sun. Each star is part of a group, called a galaxy, that may contain millions of stars. For thousands of years, astronomers gazing at the stars organized them into easily recognizable patterns, called constellations, to create a map of the skies.StarsStars and galaxiesFast factsThe sky at nightThe constellation of OrionTypes of galaxyKey facts Astronomers map the sky by dividing it into 88 areas. Each contains a different constellation. Different constellations can be seen from Earth’s Northern and Southern hemispheres. Constellations such as Orion that lie along the celestial equator can be seen from both hemispheres.ConstellationsAstronomers group the brightest stars into constellations. Many constellations are named after characters in ancient mythology, such as Orion and Andromeda. From Earth, the stars in a constellation appear to be close together. In fact, they are great distances apart, but lie in a similar direction to Eart

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