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    [DK书籍].forest(eye.wonder).pdf

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    [DK书籍].forest(eye.wonder).pdf

    Eye Wonderflexpaper.studylead.comWritten and edited by Deborah Lock and Lorrie MackDesigned by Janet AllisPublishing manager Sue LeonardManaging art editor Clare SheddenJacket design Chris DrewPicture researcher Jo de Gray and Sarah Stewart-RichardsonProduction Shivani PandeyDTP Designer Almudena DazConsultant Samantha SawyerLONDON, NEW YORK, MUNICH, MELBOURNE, and DELHI4-5 Forest features6-7 Where in the world8-9 Tree story10-11 Awakening forest12-13 Life in the trees14-15 Rich pickings16-17 Falling leaves18-19 Forest fungi20-21 Winter journeys22-23 Needles and cones24-25 Cold killers26-27 Frozen forestContentsFirst published in Great Britain in 2004 byDorling Kindersley Limited80 Strand, London WC2R 0RL2 4 6 8 10 9 7 6 5 3 1A Penguin CompanyCopyright 2004 Dorling Kindersley Limited, LondonA CIP catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library.All rights reserved. No part of this publication may bereproduced, stored in a retri system, or transmitted in any or by any means, electronic, mechanical,photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the priorwritten permission of the copyright owner.ISBN 1-4053-0091-4Colour reproduction by Colourscan, SingaporePrinted and bound in Italy by LEGOSee our complete catalogue atwww.dk.comflexpaper.studylead.com28-29 Suffocated forests30-31 Record breakers32-33 Under the canopy34-35 Rainforest floor36-37 Getting around38-39 Up in the clouds40-41 Dry forests42-43 Forest fires44-45 Survival of the forest46-47 Glossary48 Index and acknowledgementsflexpaper.studylead.com4A large area of trees clumped together is called a forest. However, a forest is muchmore than this. Step inside and you’lldiscover a wide variety of plants, with lots of different animals livingamong them. Forest featuresUsing water, carbon dioxidefrom the air, and sunlight,leaves produce food for the tree. This process is called photosynthesis.Birth of a treeMost seeds are eaten,or trampled on, or fallin places where theycannot grow. Ifa seed survives,its case cracks open.Roots break through,then a stem appearsabove the ground,and finally the firstleaves unfold.The bark protects the woodthat carries goodness betweenthe branches and the roots.The roots spreadout sideways and downwards,soaking up waterand minerals.A fallen tree ishome to animals,such as woodliceand millipedes,feeding on therotting wood.Parts of a treeThe trunk of the tree supports thecrown of branches, which bear leaves,flowers, fruits, or cones. The rootsanchor the tree into the ground andsoak up goodness from the soil. Flowers produceseeds from whichnew trees can grow.These new leaves areshaped like those onthe fully-grown tree.flexpaper.studylead.comAn oak mothcaterpillar eatsthe leaves of an oak tree.A shrew looksfor insects to eat.A barn owl huntssmall animals, suchas the shrew.The forest communityA forest is a massive food web.Parts of living and rotting plantsare eaten by many tiny animals,which are eaten by other animalsthat are hunted by other animals.Changes can affect the balanceof the whole community. flexpaper.studylead.comNORTH AMERICASOUTH AMERICAAlmost a third of all the landon Earth is covered by trees. Indifferent parts of the world, theclimate and the altitude affectthe types of tree that can grow.There are three main types of forest – deciduous forest,coniferous forest, and rainforest. Where in the worldChanging seasonsIn some regions, temperature and rainfallchange dramatically through the year, so all living things have to adapt. This tree is divided into four sections that show howthe branches look in autumn, winter, spring,and summer. Deciduous forestsTrees that shed their leaves in autumn and grow new ones in spring are known asdeciduous. It is never very hot or very coldin these deciduous, or temperate, forests.autumnwinter springsummerFind your forestIn cold places, forests are usually coniferous.Rainforests grow in hot, damp climates.Areas that are sometimes warm andsometimes cool are called temperate zones. These are where temperate, or deciduous, forests are found. EquatorConiferous forestsDeciduous forestsRainforestsflexpaper.studylead.comAFRICAEUROPEAUSTRALIAASIA7Altitude The height a place or region is situated above thelevel of the sea. Climate The average weather of an area in terms of temperature,rain, wind, etc.Equator An imaginary circle around the middle of the Earth where the weather is hot all year round. Forest words Coniferous forestsWhere conditions are cool andharsh, trees grow hard, permanentneedles for protection instead ofleaves that fall off. They also havetough cones in place of flowers tohold their seeds. This type of tree iscalled coniferous, or evergreen. RainforestsUsually found in tropical regions,dense, jungly rainforests growwhere the climate is always warmand wet. Although these forests cover only seven per cent of theland in the world, more than half of all existing plant andanimal species live in them. Coniferous forestsDeciduous forestsRainforestsRainforestsflexpaper.studylead.comThere have been plants of some kindon Earth for 420 million years, but thefirst forests were full of tall ferns ratherthan trees. It wasn’t until about 210million years ago that forests began to look like the ones we know today. Tree storyHistorical ringsScientists learn a great deal about treesby examining the rings inside theirtrunks – each ring indicates one year of growth. A wide ring shows thatthe tree grew quickly thatyear; a narrow ringmeans a year whengrowth was slow. The outer layer of bark is made up of dead cellsthat also hold clues tothe tree’s past life. Theoldestwoodisatthecentre.ofthetree.Itiscomposedmainlyofdeadcells.Thisold, hardwoodiscalledheartwood.Disappearing forestsFor thousands of years, people havedepended on trees. At the sametime, they have destroyed vastexpanses of precious woodland.At one time, RobinHood’s SherwoodForest covered over405 sq km 100,000acres. Today, it is a 2-sq-km 500-acre nature reserve. Relics of the pastWhen trees live in damp earth,they are sometimes preservedpermanently by minerals in thewater. These fossils, calledpetrified trees, tell us what forestswere like millions of years ago. 8flexpaper.studylead.comChanging forestsAfter the era of ferny plantlife,tropical rainforests dominatedour planet, which was oncewarmer than it is now. Later,temperate and evergreenwoods spread across lands thatwere not near the Equator. Dinosaurs roamed freely inprehistoric forests. Stegosaurus,who lived between 206 and144 million years ago, ateeasy-to-reach plant snacks,such as ferns and seed cones. TOOLS OF DESTRUCTIONHuge areas of early forest were destroyedby the Vikings, a warlike people who livedin northern Europe hundreds of years ago.Vikings thrived because they were good atmetalwork, so they couldmake sharp axes to cut down trees.The wood was usedto build houses andships, then thecleared land wasplanted with crops.9flexpaper.studylead.comMost trees and plants in the deciduousforest come to life in the spring, when the days get longer and the Sun begins to warm the earth. At this time, birds startbuilding nests and baby animals are born.Awakening forestIn the light andwarmth of the Sun,this horse chestnutbud bursts open. Safe homeHuddled safely in a nestmade from twigs and leaves,these bullfinch chicks arebeing fed by their father.His bright pink breastmakes him easy to identify. New lifeEven in winter, the trees are dotted with buds. Theseare covered with hard scalesto protect the tiny newflowers, leaves, and stemsinside from the cold.Wake-up callPrickly hedgehogs burrowunderground when the coldweather comes. They stay theresleeping until springtime, thencrawl out and start lookingaround for food. flexpaper.studylead.comBabe in the woodsRed deer live mostly in woodedplaces. Their young havespotted coats that blend into the speckly light filteringthrough the trees. Thiscamouflage makes it harder for predators to find them. Flowering forestBefore the tall trees getcovered with leaves, lotsof sun can get through, sobluebells, foxgloves, andother wild flowers carpetthe forest in springtime. flexpaper.studylead.comA single tree in a forest can be a home, a food source, or a shelter for a variety of animals. Often hidden from view, there is a world of wildlife activity.Insect farmersAphids feed on the sap of plants.They produce a sticky liquid calledhoneydew that ants eat. Often antscan be seen rubbing the aphids tosqueeze out the honeydew. In return,ants protect the aphids from enemies.Life in the treesBurrowersThe tangled web of a tree’s roots provides an ideal place for badgers to dig out theirhome, called a sett. Usually, this has a number of entranceholes and sleeping chamberswith underground tunnelslinking them together. SearchersAfter using its pointed beakto peck through the bark, agreen woodpecker can reachinto the tree with its long,sticky tongue to lick up anyhidden insect larvae.Tree dwellersHigh up in the trees, squirrels’ nests, called dreys, can be found hidden amongthe branches. After scurrying down to theground to find fruits and stored nuts,squirrels return there to rest.Ivy is an evergreenplant that uses atree as a support to climb up towardsthe sunlight.The grey squirrel uses itsbushy tail to balance as itruns about, and twitchesit to communicate withother squirrels.Green woodpeckers preferants and can eat 2,000 a day.When badgers leave theirsetts, foxes or rabbits oftencome to live there.Some beetles lay their eggswithin the bark of a tree.When the larvae hatch out,they are near their food.Forest facts12flexpaper.studylead.comMost fleshy fruits, such asberries, contain lots of seeds.Nuts are hard, dry fruits withjust one seed inside. Each seed has a baby plantand a supply of food enclosedinside a hard case.Flowers have bright petalsand strong, sweet scents toattract insects.Forest factsForest plants and animals help each other. For example, some animals eat berriesand nuts, while others help to fertilize plants by taking pollen from one flower to another.Sometimes, animals carry seeds to where theyhave plenty of space, light, and food to grow. Rich pickingsFruity flowersOnce they’ve beenfertilized, flowers turn into fruit or nuts. These containthe seeds that willbecome new plants. Pollen clingsto bees’ furrybodies. Nutty nameNuthatches get theirname from the nuts theyeat. They have very strongbeaks so they can get insidetough shells easily. Sweet nectarWhen insects land on flowers to drink the nectar, powdery pollensticks to their legs and bodies. Asthey move on, the pollen goes withthem to fertilize the next flower. 14flexpaper.studylead.comBuried treasureChipmunks bury acorns inthe earth, so they’ll have food for the winter. Often,they forget what they’vedone, and the acorns grow into oak trees Hitching a ride Some seeds are stored inside stickyburrs that get caught on animal fur.Eventually, they fall off, and some of them land on fertile ground. Feasting for winterThis American black bear isfilling up on woodland berries.During the autumn, he needsto eat as much as he can tokeep him going through thelong, cold winter. flexpaper.studylead.comIn the autumn, the forest floor becomeslittered with the multi-coloured leaves that have fallen off the trees. Many creepy-crawlies feed on the rotting leaves, whileother animals feast on these tiny animals.Falling leavesColour changesLeaves get their colourfrom green chlorophyll,which absorbs the energy insunlight. When the tree usesup all the chlorophyll, itsleaves turn yellow and red. Hide and seekHidden amongst the thick layers of rottingleaves, the woodcock uses its long bill to poke around for tiny animals to eat. With eyes positioned high on its head, it keeps a lookout for enemies at the same time. Sticky tongueAt night, toads waddle from theirdark shelters in search of insects,larvae, spiders, slugs, andworms to catch on theirsticky tongues.Insects make up70 per cent of the animals in adeciduous forest.Snails have roughtongues to breakoff their food.16flexpaper.studylead.com17A bed for the winterDuring the autumn, the dormousefeasts on hazelnuts. As the weatherbecomes colder, it makes a nest ofleaves and grass, then curls up tosleep until spring.Stripy foragerThe striped skunk uses its long, sharpclaws to dig into burrows and rotting woodfor all sorts of food. If threatened, it aims a strong-smelling sprayat its enemy.Underground tunnelsAs the mole moves quickly through itsmaze of underground tunnels, it eatsthe earthworms and other animalsthat have fallen inside. Soilfrominsidethetunnels getspiledupintomolehills.flexpaper.studylead.comFungi play a vital role in a forest. Theyfeed on dead plants and animals turningthem into nutrients, which enrich the soil.Then, other plants soak up these nutrientsto keep healthy.Forest fungiUnder the cap are thegills, which is wherethe spores are stored.In the soil, there isthe main part of the fungus – a mazeof thin threadssearching for food.Puff, puffTo distribute its spores, thepuffball puffs them out of a holein its cap, like a cloud of smoke.The many millions of spores arethen carried away by the wind. PartnersSome fungi, such as fly agaric, a partnership with a treenearby. They link up with thetree’s roots and supply itwith nutrients. The treegives them moistureand food. The bright red colourwarns that this fungusis poisonous. 18flexpaper.studylead.com19Deadly tasteThe mushroom capand stalk are the onlyparts of a fungus that can be seen. For people,the death cap is one of the most poisonousmushrooms in the world. The stalk base shows theremains of a veil thatonce protected the cap.The bracket-shapedcap of the birchpolypore becomesflatter and darker as it gets older.The parasitesOften, a group ofbirch polyporesattacks a living birchtree, feeding on it anddraining it of its foodsupplies. Eventuallythey kill the tree andthen continue to livethere feeding on thedead wood. As it grows, the cap is joined to the stalkbefore it opens out. Forest wordsIn autumn,themushroom,orfruit,ofthefungusappears.Nutrients These are theminerals and other usefulsubstances that plants need for growth and strength.Parasite Something thatfeeds off another living thing.Spores These are the tinyseeds of a fungus.flexpaper.studylead.comWinter journeysMoving onHoney buzzards see below are large birds that feed on the meat they get from hunting. They breed inthe forests of Britain, but when wintercomes, they fly all the way to Africa. Coming homeBaby honey buzzards like to eat wasp larvae. There are lots of these in Britain’s forests in May, so this is the time when the adultsreturn from Africa to breed.Spot the birdieThis spotted flycatcher is showing howit got its name. Some of its relativesspend their summers in Europe, then flyto Africa in the autumn. Others breedin North America, and travel to Centralor South America for the winter. AF

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