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    [DK书籍].rocks.and.minerals.pdf

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    [DK书籍].rocks.and.minerals.pdf

    Eye Wonderflexpaper.studylead.com4-5 Rocky Earth6-7 A volcanic beginning8-9 Making of a rock10-11 Igneous rock12-13 Sedimentary rock14-15 Metamorphic rock16-17 Rocks from space18-19 Hidden beauty20-21 Breakdown22-23 Carving a path24-25 Crystals26-27 What a gemLONDON, NEW YORK, MUNICH, MELBOURNE, and DELHIContentsFirst published in Great Britain in 2004 byDorling Kindersley Limited80 Strand, London WC2R 0RL2 4 6 8 10 9 7 5 3 1A Penguin CompanyCopyright 2004 Dorling Kindersley Limited, LondonA CIP catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library.All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retri system, or transmitted in any or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the copyright owner.ISBN 1-4053-0090-6Colour reproduction by Colourscan, SingaporePrinted and bound in Italy by L.E.G.O.see our completecatalogue atwww.dk.comWritten and edited by Caroline BinghamDesigned by Helen ChapmanPublishing manager Susan LeonardManaging art editor Clare SheddenJacket design Chris DrewPicture researcher Sarah Stewart-RichardsonProduction Shivani PandeyDTP Designer Almudena DazConsultant Kim Dennis-Bryan PhD, FZSWith thanks to Victoria Long for design assistance.flexpaper.studylead.com28-29 Precious metals30-31 Get that metal32-33 Using rocks in art34-35 Rocks in history36-37 Building rocks38-39 A touch of mystery40-41 History in a rock42-43 Hunting for rocks44-45 What does it make46-47 Glossary48 Index and acknowledgementsflexpaper.studylead.com4carcomputerclothestelephonejewelleryyouandmehouseRocky EarthRocks and minerals areimportant. They make upmuch of our planet and aremined to provide many of thethings around us, from cars tocomputers. Even your bodycontains minerals that keep you alive. toothpasteflexpaper.studylead.comStore cupboardThe things we use in our everyday lives come from ourplanet, Earth. Theraw ingredients areall taken from thecrust. We cannot drill any deeper.Most of the crustand mantle ismade from lotsof differentrocks, allsquashedtogether.5Let’s make a rockRocks are made up of crystals ofminerals. Different amounts of mineralsmake up different rocks though somerocks are made from just one mineral.Let’s make shampooWhat s the shampoo you use on yourhair Minerals, including those belowEarth’s crust isbetween 5 and68 km 3 1⁄2 and42 miles thick.QuartzgreyScientists believethe Earth wasborn about 4,600million years ago. quartz crystals feldspar crystals mica crystals granite a type of rockcoal tar lithium clay selenium shampooMantleEarth’scrustOutercoreCoreMicablackFeldspar pinkand whiteYour body contains more than 60 minerals. Nine of these areessential for life.Some minerals take thousands ofyears to . Some in minutes.Mineral factsflexpaper.studylead.comSqueeze clay in your hands and it oozesbetween your fingers. This is a little like whathappens inside a volcano. The pressure growsuntil the volcano erupts. Whoosh It is thefirst step in the ation of new rocks.A volcanic beginningThemagmaisforcedupinsidethevolcano.Magma moltenrock chamber.Previous eruptionshave ed a cone-shaped exterior.No place for a rockDeep, deep under the Earth’s crust it is hot enough to melt rock. This molten rocksometimes builds up in chambers and burststhrough weak spots in the Earth’s crust.When magmaleaves a volcano,it is called lava.flexpaper.studylead.comShiprockShiprock Pinnacle is all thatremains of an ancientvolcano. It is thehardened core.Just a cliffThe eruption of a volcano can create deeplayers of ash,dust, and rockat its base. It changes the landscape.Volcanic debrisranges from dust and ash to rocks the size of houses.Shiprock Pinnacle inNew Mexico was oncea plug of magmafilling the chimneyvent of a volcano.Avalanche of rockA volcano erupts with such power thatsometimes the eruptiondestroys a part of thevolcano. Huge rocksshoot into the air.ShiprockPinnacleisnamedafterashipasitlooksalittlelikeone.flexpaper.studylead.comDo you think that all rocks look the sameIn fact, there are many different kinds ofrocks, but they can be divided into threebasic types, which are being ed anddestroyed as you read this book.Making of a rockIn the beginningEarth’s first rockswere igneous rocks.These frommolten rock that hascooled and hardened.Chipping awayOne way sedimentary rocks is when pieces ofrock are carried to the seawhere they create hugepiles of sediment. Afterthousands of years thesecement together.Molten volcanicrock cools to igneous rock.SedimentaryrockSedimentsareflexpaper.studylead.com9Sediment settles onthe bottom of seas,rivers, and lakes.builds upinlayers.Getting hotterRub your hands together andthey get hot. Metamorphic rock s when rocks aresqueezed and heated deep under the Earth’s crust.The pressure and heat asgranite is forced up causes the development of themetamorphic rock marble.GraniteDeepunderthe earth,rocksarebeingsquashedandheated.ROCKING AROUNDOver thousands of years,each type of rock canchange into one of theothers depending onwhat happens to it, fromigneous to sedimentary to metamorphic.Marblesquashedtogether.flexpaper.studylead.com10Igneous rocks the greatest part of Earth’s rocky crust, but can also beseen in the land around us. A famousigneous rock landscape is the Giant’sCauseway in Northern Ireland.Igneous rockPumice is an igneousrock from the heartof a volcano.Pele’s hair lookslike hair It sfrom sprays of lava.Obsidian has a shiny surface.It contains a lot of glass.Built to lastThe most common igneous rock is granite.It is incredibly strong, and has been usedfor building for thousands of years.From hair to glassA volcano produces a greatvariety of igneous rocks. Just take a look at the threeexamples shown above.London’sTowerBridgeusesgranite.Pumicestoneistheonlyfloatingrock.flexpaper.studylead.com11Giant’s CausewayThe Giant’s Causeway in Antrim,Northern Ireland, ed when basaltlava cooled and shrank. This type oflava can create hexagonallyshaped columns.Legendssaygiantsusedthecausewayassteppingstones.“Igneous” comes from theLatin word for “fire”.The more slowly that a rockcools from its molten , thelarger the crystals.Granite cools slowly and haslarge crystals. Obsidian, whichcools quickly, has small crystals.Igneous factsflexpaper.studylead.comTowering chalk cliffs are anamazing example of sedimentaryrock. They are ed from theshells and skeletons of microscopicsea creatures. Just imagine howmany are needed to build a cliff.Sedimentary rockOne by oneThe sea creatures thatbreak down to create chalkare tiny. It’s thought thatthese cliffs grew by 0.5 mm0.02 in a year – that’sabout 180 of these creaturespiled on top of one another.In places, thesecliffs are 90 m300 ft high.Year 1...From plant to rockAnother way in whichsedimentary rocks is by the breakdown of plants.As they are buried, they are squeezed together,eventually ing coal.12MovementsintheEarth’scrusthaveliftedthe cliffs out of thesea.From plant matter... to peat...flexpaper.studylead.comLet’s playDo you like to playin golden sand This is a sediment. Left forthousands of years, it may eventually sandstone, asedimentary rock.Rocks are continuallyeroded, over millions ofyears, to produce sand.at 90 million years... and after 360 million years.Aswellastinyshells,itcancontainlargefossils.Chalktakesmillionsofyearsto.All mixed togetherThis sedimentary rock has edwhen pebbles have cementedtogether, a bit like a cake mix....to coalto lignite... to bituminouscoal...13flexpaper.studylead.com14“Metamorphic” comes from the ancient Greekwords, meta meaning change and morphemeaning . When rocks are heated orcompressed, this type of rock s.Metamorphic rockMarble magicMarble is a beautifulmetamorphic rock. Itis mined by being cutinto huge blocks withstrong cutting wires.A peek at slateThe metamorphic rock slates from mud and a rockcalled shale. The shale has been squeezed andcompressed as mountains are pushed up. Slate splitseasily into sheets.Underground changesOne way metamorphic rocks is when mountains arepushed up out of the Earth’scrust. Mountains and hillssurround this old slate quarry.Eachblockweighsthousandsoftonnes.Marblecanbecarvedintostatues.flexpaper.studylead.com15The dark host rock contains swirls of a lightercoloured rock.A shimmering palacePolished marble looks stunning when usedfor building, and perhaps the world’s mostfamous marble building is the Taj Mahal in India. The marble shimmers in the sun.Icecream swirlsWhen rocks are heated,parts may begin to meltand run through a “host”rock. This makes swirlypatterned metamorphicrock. The rock is called migmatite.Water cools the cutting equipment in a quarry.Marbleisedfromlimestone.flexpaper.studylead.com16We cannot see it, but about 23 tonnes25 tons of dust rain down on Earthevery day. This fine dust arrives fromspace. Occasionally a rock from space hits Earth; this is called a meteorite.A meteorite hitMeteorites are pieces of rock or metal that hit Earth. Somehave broken off asteroids, largechunks of rock that orbit theSun between Mars and Jupiter.Most are fragments of comets.Rocks from spaceWhat’s insideMeteorites from asteroidscontain metals such as iron as well as rocks. Those fromcomets contain more rock than metal.MeteoriteshitEarth.Meteorsburnup aboveit.There is evidence that amassive meteorite hit Earth65 million years ago, causingthe dinosaurs to die out.Cometspassonby.flexpaper.studylead.com17The pitted surface iscreated by the immenseheat as the meteor “rubs”against the atmosphere.What’s that holeIf a large meteorite hits Earth it can a crater, changing the surroundings where itlands. It would take you about 30 minutes towalk across this meteorite crater in Australia.I spy a shooting starMeteors or shooting stars can be seen as they burn up in Earth’satmosphere, usually more than 80 km 50 miles above our heads. Mostmeteorsarethesizeof a smallpebble.Alargemeteoritemaybetravellingat 40,000 km/h25,000mphwhenithits.This crater is so old that trees havegrown in its base.Just passingComets are a bit like huge snowballs, but made of ice, gases, and dust. They orbit the Sun, developing long tails as they near Earth.A comet’s tail is narrow but it can stretchfor hundreds of kilometres.ONCE IN A LIFETIMEOne of the most famous comets, Halley’s,was included in the Bayeux Tapestry,which was stitched more than 900 years ago. Thiscomet passes Earth justonce every 76 years. Itlast passed us in 1986.flexpaper.studylead.com18Brrrr A cave is a damp, dark, chilly place. However, if you arelucky enough to visit a largecave that has been lit andopened to visitors, you’lldiscover incrediblybeautiful shapesin the rocks.Hidden beautyWater damageOver the course of thousands ofyears, a constant flow of water will eat away at a solid area of rock. After 100,000 years, thismay have ed a small cave, which will continue to grow.Thiscavehasopenedintoavastcavern.This stream fallsfurther than the length of a football pitch.flexpaper.studylead.comSoft centreHave you ever eaten a hard sweetwith a soft centre Volcanic cavescan when soft lava pushes onthrough a hardened outer layer.Build it upCave ations can be amazinglycomplicated. These slender shapeshave built up gradually, as drops ofwater have deposited traces of amineral called calcite.A funny shapeStalactites hang downwhile stalagmites grow up.It can take 1,000 years forthese ations to growless than a centimetre.Thesevolcaniccaveswere onceminedillstones.The talleststalagmite in theworld is the height ofa six-storey house.Rock ations in caves build updrip by drip.19flexpaper.studylead.com20Rocks are not as permanent as you may think. From driving rain to frothy seas, when rocks are exposed to wind, water, glaciers, or shifts intemperature, changes begin to happen. BreakdownAttack by wind and waterHoodoos are columns of soft sandstonetopped by harder rock caps. The cap hasprotected the rock beneath it from beingwashed away by heavy downpours of rain.Attack by seaA long time ago, these stackswere a part of Australia’scoastline, but they have beencut off from the coast after anongoing battering from the sea.The layers that makeup the sedimentaryrock in these hoodooscan be clearly seen. Thesurroundingrockhasbeenwashedaway.flexpaper.studylead.com21Attack by acid rainPollution from cars and lorriesattacks rock. The gases are carriedin rainwater to make acids that eat into rock – as shown by the damage to this sculpture.Attack by riverOver millions of years, the ColoradoRiver has carved its way down intoAmerica’s Grand Canyon, exposingrock faces 1,829 m 6,000 ft deep.Erosioncauses sediment.If a hoodoo losesits protective cap,the structure willsoon begin to wear away.Hoodoosspectacularshapes,allclusteredtogether.Erosion factsThe wearing away of alandscape is known as erosion.Plants add to rock erosionas their roots burrow their way into cracks in rocks.When rocks are brokendown where they stand, it is known as weathering.flexpaper.studylead.comA glacier is a huge mass of slow-moving ice. Born as snow builds upat the top of a mountain, it beginsto force its way forward, picking up rocks and boulders as it moves.Carving a pathSlow progressGlaciers usually creep just a few centimetres a day. They end lower down themountain where the watermelts away, or at the coastwhere large blocks break off.22Theforceofaglacierisenoughtocrumblerock.flexpaper.studylead.comFrom rock to flourThe sides and base of aglacial valley are coveredwith plenty of scrapes andscratches. This scrapingproduces fine grains ofrock, known as rock flour.Sprinkle on the colourMountain lakes are often incredibleshades of turquoise blue. This isbecause of the rock flour fed into them by a melting glacier.A glacier carves adeep valley as itmoves forwards.Tiny particles of rock in the water catch thelight in a certain way.Someisdepositedinmountain lakes.Rockflouriscarriedondown the glacier.Adding the stripesAs a glacier works its way forward,it picks up all sorts of rocks andsediment. This s darker streakson the surface of the glacier.flexpaper.studylead.comFANCY AN ICE LOLLYThe word crystal comes from the Greek word kyros, which means “icycold”. The ancient Greeksthought quartz crystals weremade of ice that had frozenso hard it could not melt. 24Have you ever cut a paper snowflakeSnowflakes are made from small ice crystalsthat collide and stick together. Crystals also in rock, and can be cut and polished. From little to big The tiny crystals that makeup the endless golden sandsof a desert are made ofquartz. Quartz can also gigantic crystals. The largest rock crystal was about 6 m 20 ft longBeautiful coloursMany crystals come in a rich range of colo

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