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    Christianity (Eyewitness)

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    Christianity (Eyewitness)

    EyewitnessCHRISTIANITYflexpaper.studylead.comRussianOrthodoxiconsSalvationArmysongleaderplaying acornetAbbot’scrozierModel of the MayflowerHorn of SaintHubertHolywaterstoupStained-glass fragmentdepicting the Madonnaand Childflexpaper.studylead.comWritten byPHILIP WILKINSONPhotographed by STEVE TEAGUEIlluminated Latin psalterEyewitnessCHRISTIANITYflexpaper.studylead.comCarving ofan angelswinging a censerGargoyleCenser andincense boat on standStatue ofSaint JosephBread and wine forHoly CommunionRosary with medalsRosarymedalModel ofa baroquechurchDiscover more atFor Bookwork LtdEditor Annabel BlackledgeArt editor Kate MullinsFor DK PublishingManaging editorAndrew MacintyreManaging art editorsClare Shedden, Jane ThomasUS editors Margaret Parrish, Christine Heilman Category publisher Linda MartinProduction controller Erica RosenPicture researchersAngela Anderson, Bridget TilyPicture librarian Claire BowersDTP designer Siu Yin HoJacket designer Dean PriceConsultants Annette Reynolds, AD Publishing Services Ltd, Jon Reynolds, Diocesan Director of EducationPAPERBACK EDITIONEditor John SearcyWriter Elizabeth HesterConsultant Peggy MorganPublishing director Beth SutinisSenior designer Tai BlancheDesigner Diana CatherinesPhoto research Chrissy McIntyreArt director Dirk KaufmanDTP designer Kathy FariasProduction Ivor ParkerThis Eyewitness Guide has been conceived by Dorling Kindersley Limited and Editions GallimardHardback edition first published in Great Britain in 2003This edition first published in Great Britain in 2006 byDorling Kindersley Limited,80 Strand, London WC2R 0RL2 4 6 8 10 9 7 5 3 1Copyright 2003, 2006 Dorling Kindersley Limited, LondonA Penguin CompanyAll rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retri system, or transmitted in any or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the copyright owner.A CIP catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library.ISBN-13 978-1-40531-603-3ISBN-10 1-4053-1603-9Colour reproduction by Colourscan, SingaporePrinted in China by Toppan Co. Shenzen Ltd. LONDON, NEW YORK, MELBOURNE,MUNICH, and DELHIflexpaper.studylead.com6In the beginning8The birth of Jesus10The teachings of Jesus14The crucifixion16The resurrection18Spreading the word20God’s book26Heaven and Hell28Catholicism32The Orthodox church34The Reation36Protestantism40The Christian life44Monks and nuns48The priesthood50The church52Holy Communion54Ways to worship56Christian calendar58The cycle of life60Christian culture64Did you know66Timeline68Find out more70Glossary72IndexContentsAbbot inceremonialrobesflexpaper.studylead.com6In the beginningTHE BIBLE BEGINS WITH stories of the creation of the worldand the early Jewish people. These books, which make upthe Old Testament of the Christian Bible, and which are also sacred to the Jews, were written by Jewish scribes longbefore the birth of Jesus. For the Jews they are importantbecause they describe the covenant, or special relationship,between God and the Jewish people. For Christians the Old Testament has added significance because many of thestories seem to prefigure, or mirror, events that happened later when Jesus came to save humankind from sin.ENEMY IN EDENSatan, who lived in Hell pp. 26–27, was God’sarchenemy. Early Jewish writers said that theserpent in the Garden of Eden, a cunning tempter,was Satan in disguise. In the Book of Genesis, theserpent tempts Eve to eat the forbidden fruit, justas Satan later tempted Jesus in the New Testament.ORIGINAL SINThe serpent tempted Eve to eat the forbidden fruit,and Adam followed suit. God was angry at theirdisobedience and threw them out of the Garden ofEden. Christians believe that Adam and Eve, andtheir descendants, were tainted with this “originalsin”. Only the coming of Jesus Christ wouldeventually offer humankind a way of escaping sin and achieving everlasting life with God.FORBIDDEN FRUITGenesis, the first book of the Bible p. 20, tells howGod created Heaven and Earth, land and water,animals and birds, and finally Adam and Eve – thefirst man and woman. God put them in the Gardenof Eden, and told them that the only fruit they mustnot eat was the fruit of the Tree of Knowledge. The serpent isoften pictured as asnake like this redspitting cobraThe forbidden fruitis often imagined tohave been an appleSatanSaint Michael is weighing souls to determine whether theyshould go to Heaven or HellThis 12th-centurypainting of Satan showshim with Saint Michael4th-century depiction of Adam and Eve in Edenflexpaper.studylead.com7PROPHETS AND LEADERSThe Old Testament contains storiesabout Jewish ancestors such asAbraham and the great leader Moses,who guided the Jews from slavery inEgypt back to their homeland. TheOld Testament also includes writingsabout and by prophets such as Isaiahand Daniel, who told of the comingof a Messiah, or saviour. “Don’t hurt the boy or do anything to him. Now I know that youhonour and obey God.”GENESIS 2212 Angel of the Lord to Abraham THE GREAT FLOODAnother story in Genesis tells how God became disenchanted with all the evil in the world, and sent a great flood to destroy much of thewickedness. Only one good man, Noah, was allowed to escape withhis family. He built a great boat, the ark, in which he, his sons andtheir wives, and all the birds and animals took refuge. Christiansthink of Noah as the second father of the human race, after Adam.SACRIFICIAL RAMGod ordered Abraham to kill his son Isaac as asacrifice. Abraham was about to obey when anangel told him to stop and kill a ram instead.Christians see this story as a prophecy of theway in which God would sacrifice Jesus.The dove brought Noah a leaf to showthat the flood waters were going downMoses window from AugsburgCathedral in GermanyMosaic of Noah andhis family in the ark Isaiah window fromAugsburg Cathedral in GermanyDaniel window fromAugsburg Cathedral in GermanyGodprovided aram forAbraham’ssacrificeflexpaper.studylead.com8JOHN THE BAPTISTJohn led the life of a prophet andpreacher, encouraging people torepent their sins and be baptized.John’s preaching prepared theway for Jesus, and when Jesusgrew up he asked John tobaptize him in the River Jordan.The birth of JesusTHE GOSPELS p. 21 tell how a virgin called Mary gave birth to Jesus Christ in Bethlehem.Followers of Christ Christiansbelieve that Jesus was God’s son, andthat the prophets of the Old Testamenthad predicted he would come andsave humankind from sin. The ideathat God became human in this way is called the incarnation, meaning thatGod’s spirit was made into human flesh. The birth ofJesus marked the origin of the Christian religion.GLAD TIDINGSLuke’s account of the nativitydescribes how angels appearedto shepherds in the fields justoutside Bethlehem. The angelstold them the good news ofJesus’ birth and the shepherdscame down from the fields intothe town to worship the newbornking. This story shows that Jesusis important to everyone, even“outsiders” like the shepherds. MADONNAAND CHILDStatues of Mary, or theMadonna, andthe infant Jesusare a reminder ofMary’s vital rolein the Christianstory. She is a linkbetween the humanand spiritual worlds. THE ANNUNCIATIONLuke’s Gospel describes how the angel Gabriel appeared to Mary totell her that, even though she was a virgin, she was about to becomepregnant. Gabriel announced that Mary would be visited by the HolySpirit p. 26 and would give birth to God’s son, who would be a kingwhose rule would last for ever. Mary was told to call her son Jesus. The angels play instrumentsthat were popular in the16th century, when thisaltarpiece was madeMary is traditionallyshown wearing blueModernmosaic fromOld PlazaChurch inCalifornia,USAThe HolySpirit isshown inthe of a doveJohn carries a banner bearing Latin wordsmeaning ”Behold the Lamb of God”John wears camel-hair clothes,the typical garments of a prophetHUMBLE BEGINNINGSMary and Joseph werestaying in Bethlehem atthe time of the nativity,or birth, of Jesus. All theinns in the town werefull, so Jesus had to beborn in the humblest ofsurroundings – a stable.Statue byDonatello,1386–1466flexpaper.studylead.com915th-centurystained glassfrom UlmCathedral inGermanyROYAL RIVALRYKing Herod ruled the Holy Land on behalf of the Romans. According to Matthew, he tried todestroy Jesus, whom he saw as a rival to his throne. Herod told his men to kill all thechildren in Bethlehemwho were less thantwo years old. Godwarned Joseph ofthis, and he escaped withMary and Jesus to Egypt. FOLLOW THE STARMatthew’s Gospel tellshow magi, or wisemen, followed a starfrom the east toJerusalem in searchof a child born to rule the people of Israel. King Herod sent themto Bethlehem,where theyfound Jesus. The shepherdswatch theirflocks of sheepGod looks downfrom HeavenMary, her husband Joseph,and the baby JesusGlazed earthenwarealtarpiece made by Giovanni della Robbia, 1521FIT FOR A KINGThe magi worshipped Jesus and gave him three gifts gold,frankincense, and myrrh. Thesymbolism of these gifts may beinterpreted in different ways. Oneinterpretation is that gold representsriches, frankincense kingship, andmyrrh a special spiritual calling. 14th-centurypendant showingthe magi with JesusGoldFrankincenseMyrrhflexpaper.studylead.com1011HUMBLE LEADERJesus called 12 disciples to be hisspecial companions. They wereexpected to leave their familiesand possessions to follow andhelp Jesus, and carry on his workafter his death. When he washedthe disciples’ feet, as shown onthis French manuscript, Jesus wasshowing them that they shouldbe as humble as their leader.The teachings of JesusJESUS’ MINISTRY – his period of teaching –probably lasted no more than three years, butit had an enormous impact. During this shorttime he preached, taught, and peredmiracles in the Holy Land, especially in thevillages around the Sea of Galilee. Jesus was a brilliant teacher who could explain things in ways that everyone could understand. Histeachings attracted many followers becausethey revealed a new way of looking at God’skingdom. He said it was open to all believers who would turn awayfrom their sins, including the poor, the sick, and social outcasts.FISHERS OF MENAs this Italian mosaic shows,Andrew and Simon were fishermen.Jesus called them to be his disciples,telling them that, if they followedhim, he would teach them to catchpeople enlist new followers ofChrist instead of fish.A LIFE IN GLASSThis window from St Albans Cathedral inHertfordshire, England,shows key episodes fromthe life of Jesus. It includeshis baptism, the water intowine miracle, and thecrucifixion. The bottomright-hand panel of thewindow shows Jesus as ashepherd, a symbol of theway in which he cared forthe people around him. FEEDING THE MULTITUDEThis is the only miracledescribed in all four of theGospels. After a long day’spreaching, Jesus and thedisciples wished to rest, but they were followed by a vast crowd who wantedto hear Jesus speak. Jesusfelt sorry that the crowdhad no food, and producedenough for all of themfrom the only availablefoodstuffs – five smallloaves and two fishes.Jesus turns waterinto wine at CanaJesus on the crosssurrounded byRoman soldiers andthe two MarysCALMING WATERSJesus grew up in Nazareth, butmoved to Capernaum, on the banksof the Sea of Galilee, where he beganhis ministry. Jesus did much of histeaching in this region, and one of hismiracles was the calming of a stormon the lake’s waters. When he wanteda quiet place to pray, Jesus travelledinto the local hills, which can be seenin the background of this photographof the Sea of Galilee’s northern shore.WATER INTO WINEJesus’ first miracle, which is described in John’s Gospel, took place at a wedding that he attended at Cana in Galilee. When the wine ran out, Jesus told the servants to fill six large pots with water,and when they poured the liquid out of the pots it hadturned into wine. The wine was so good that the gueststhought the bridegroom had kept the best until last.The miraclesThe Gospels describe more than 30 of Jesus’miracles. Some of these involved feeding theneedy, others were “nature miracles”, such ascalming the storm or walking on the water. But the majority involved some sort of healing –either curing people of physical diseaseslike leprosy and paralysis or “casting outdemons” to rid people of mental illness.The Gospels record three occasions whenJesus even raised people from the dead.TAX COLLECTORSSome members of a Jewish groupcalled the Pharisees tried to trickJesus into criticizing the Romanauthorities. They asked him whetherit was right that they should paytaxes to the Romans. Jesus showedthem the emperor’s portrait on thecoins and said that they should giveTerracotta jars for storing waterPaying the tax collectorGOD’S OWN SONThe Gospels describe how, when Jesus was baptized p. 58, the Holy Spirit camedown like a dove and God’svoice was heard saying, “Thisis my own dear Son”. Thismomentous event, shown herein a 5th-century mosaic fromRavenna in Italy, marks thebeginning of Jesus’ ministry.Continued on next pageflexpaper.studylead.com12PLANTING WORDSJesus compared his words to seedsscattered by a farmer. Some of theseed fell on the path and was steppedon. Some fell on rocky ground oramong thorn bushes, where seedlingscould not grow. Finally, some fell ongood soil and grew into corn. Jesus saidthat people who heard and understood his words were like the good soil. Continued from previous pageParables and lessonsJesus’ favourite way of teaching was to use parables – short stories that make their point by means of a simplecomparison. Jesus used these parables to talk about thekingdom of God, and to illustrate how people shouldbehave towards each other. Jesus also preached morallectures called sermons. The most famous of these was the Sermon on the Mount, in which he explained the keyfeatures of the kingdom of God p. 26 and the Christianway of life. Above all, Jesus said that you should “Do forothers what you want them to do for you”.LESSON OF THE FIG TREEJesus told people to think of a fig tree. When its leaves start toappear, people know that summeris on its way. Similarly, they shouldlook out for signs of Jesus’ secondcoming. When strange things happento the moon and stars, when wholecountries are in despair, and people arefaint from fear, then they will know that the kingdom of God is about to come.THE GOOD SAMARITAN Jesus taught that you should love your neighbour. When someone asked Jesus, “Who is my neighbour” he told this story A man was robbed and left for dead. A Jewish priest and a Levite passed, but did not help. Then aSamaritan – a member of a group scorned by the Jews – came by. He helpedthe injured man and took him to safety. The Samaritan was the true neighbour.Figs andfig leaf19th-centurywindow ofthe GoodSamaritanSower’s bagand seedsTHE LOST SONThis parable tells of a man who di

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