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    Civil War (Eyewitness)

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    Civil War (Eyewitness)

    flexpaper.studylead.comflexpaper.studylead.comDORLING KINDERSLEY EYEWITNESS BOOKSCIVIL WARflexpaper.studylead.comUnion private2nd Battalion flag,Hilliard’s AlabamaLegionKetchum hand grenadeCanister with lead slugsCanteen and haversackTelescopeflexpaper.studylead.comA Dorling Kindersley BookCIVIL WARWritten by JOHN STANCHAKModel 1850 saberDORLING KINDERSLEY EYEWITNESS BOOKSThe Great Seal of the Confederacy.58 caliber rifleInfantry drum .44 caliber Colt revolverConfederate currencyflexpaper.studylead.comDORLING KINDERSLEYLONDON, NEW YORK, MELBOURNE, MUNICH, and DELHIPublisher Neal Portercutive Editor Iris RosoffArt Director Dirk KaufmanProject Editor Andrea CurleyDesigner Tom Carling, Carling Design, Inc.Published in the United States byDorling Kindersley Publishing, Inc.375 Hudson St.New York, New York 10014Second American Edition2 4 6 8 10 9 7 5 3 Copyright 2000Dorling Kindersley Publishing, Inc.Text copyright 2000 by John StanchakAll rights reserved under International and Pan-American CopyrightConventions. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in aretri system, or transmitted in any or by any means, electronic,mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the priorwritten permission of the copyright owner. Published in Great Britain byDorling Kindersley Limited.Dorling Kindersley books are available at special discounts for bulkpurchases for sales promotions or premiums. Special editions, includingpersonalized covers, excerpts of existing guides, and corporate imprintscan be created in large quantities for specific needs. For more ination,contact Special Markets Dept., Dorling Kindersley Publishing, Inc., 375 Hudson St. New York, New York 10014; Fax 212-689-5254Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication DataStanchak, John E.Civil War / by John Stanchak 1st American ed.p. cm. Dorling Kindersley eyewitnessSummary Examines many aspects of the Civil War, including the issue of slavery, secession, the raising of armies, individual battles, the commanders, Northern life, Confederate culture, the surrender of the South, and the aftermath.ISBN 0-7894-6302-4 hc ISBN 0-7894-6303-2 pb ISBN 0-7894-6988-X lib.1. United States History Civil War, 1861-1865 Juvenile literature [1. United States History Civil War, 1861-1865.] I. Title. II. Series E468 .S795 2000 00-020431973.7dc21Printed in China by Toppan Printing Co. Shenzhen Ltd.Color reproduction by Colourscan, Singaporesee our complete catalog atwww.dk.comJacket of Rush’s LancersSlave auction posterCanvas-covered canteenConfederate soldier4th Regiment flag, Irish BrigadeClara BartonConfederate General Stand Watieflexpaper.studylead.comContents6The long argument8Slave life10The election of 186012The Underground Railroad14Secession16Raising armies18Everyone’s war20Women at war22The young and the old24Outfitting armies26Bull Run28The sick and wounded30Great commanders32Arming soldiers34Black volunteers36The horsemen38Army camp life40Field artillery42Gettysburg44The siege of Vicksburg46Northern life48Confederate culture50War on the water52The secret war54The March to the Sea56The Confederacy surrenders58The fates of two leaders60A life of freedom62A new era begins64IndexWriting homeflexpaper.studylead.com6The long argumentWHAT RIGHTS DOES A STATE ENJOY Can it ignore a federal law withwhich it does not agree Americans had been arguing about thepowers of the national government versus the rights of states longerthan they had been arguing about slavery. The issue of states’ rightshad caused shouting matches when America’s founders were writingthe U.S. Constitution in the late 1700s. During the 1830s, PresidentAndrew Jackson had argued with South Carolina’s legislators over atariff law they did not want to enforce. Years later, the bickeringrevolved around the legality of slavery in new Western territories. Ifslaves were property and the right to own property was protected bythe Constitution, could slave owners take their human property intoterritories or states where slavery was prohibited In the 1850s, theargument erupted into guerrilla warfare between settlers in pro-slavery Missouri and their antislavery next-door neighbors in Kansas. Missouri Border Ruffians rode across the state line to burn farms and murder antislavery men. Kansas guerrillas, calledJayhawkers, retaliated. In time, the U.S. Army was called out to curtailthis bloodletting. Some slave state patriots believed Southerners couldnever make peace with a strong national government. They called forstates to leave the Union, a process called secession. In the prewaryears, these secession advocates were called fire-eaters. SAVED FROM SLAVERYThe federal government outlawed the importation of new slaves fromAfrica in 1807. The South’s need for more laborers was so great, however,that ship captains continued smuggling slaves into the country until thestart of the Civil War. The people in this newspaper illustration werekidnapped in Africa in 1860. They were being shipped to the United States to be sold into slavery when U.S. Navy sailors rescued them.A SECESSION PROPHETVirginia agriculturist Edmund Ruffinbelieved the South had a differentculture from the rest of the country.The publisher of a farming journal,he turned to writing articles thatpromoted the establishment of aseparate Southern nation. In the1850s, he became a leading fire-eater, and in 1860 helped SouthCarolinians organize theirsecession campaign. He was giventhe honor of firing the cannon shotat Fort Sumter, South Carolina, thatbegan the Civil War. After theconflict, he committed suicide ratherthan live under Union rule.THE CAPITAL OF ACRUMBLING NATIONWhile congressmenfeuded over states’rights issues, twopresent-day symbolsof Washington, D.C.,were unfinished. Inthe months before the war, both theCapitol’s dome andthe WashingtonMonument wereunder construction.The capital was not a very impressiveplace to work out thenation’s problems.More captiveson the afterdeckEmaciated captivesAN ANTISLAVERY SLOGANAmericans who hated slaveryed organizations to try to endit and to embarrass slave owners.One group’s slogan was thequestion “Am I Not a Man and aBrother” The members tried toforce masters to admit that slaveswere not farm property, but people like themselves.flexpaper.studylead.com7A VERY PUBLIC WHIPPINGCharles Sumner was a Massachusetts attorney who won national notice in the 1840s for representing an African American in what may have been thenation’s first school desegregation case. Though he lost the case, he won the respect of state voters and was elected to the U.S. Senate in 1851. In 1856,Sumner stood on the floor of the Senate for two days speaking out against slavery and its supporters. Among the people he tongue-lashed was AndrewButler, a senator from South Carolina. Butler was not present to reply. However, two days later, his nephew, South Carolina Congressman Preston Brooks,strode into the Senate and beat Sumner senseless with a cane. South Carolinians applauded Brooks for defending his family’s honor.THE BOOK THAT FUELED THE FLAMESThe novel Uncle Tom’s Cabin; or, Life among the Lowly was published in 1852. It portrayed somecruelties of slavery, featured a wicked slave manager named Simon Legree, and excitedreaders with scenes of a chase after a runaway slave. This illustration from the book featuresits main character, a kind but abused slave named Uncle Tom. The book became wildlypopular in the North and was turned into an even more popular play. Actors hated toper it in pro-slavery towns, though, because perances caused fights and disorder.ANTISLAVERY MEN OF KANSASArmed with a cannon, these Kansas citizens are ready to fight pro-slavery raiders from Missouri. Thisphotograph was taken in the 1850s, a decade that sawviolence over the slavery issue grow all around thenation. A pro-slavery mob lynched the publisher of an antislavery newspaper in Alton, Illinois. A fewSouthern law officers were beaten when they tried toapprehend runaway slaves living in Northern towns.Sumner was sobadly injuredthat it took himyears to recover.However, statevoters reelectedhim to office,and he servedthroughout theCivil War era.flexpaper.studylead.com8Slave lifeBY THE YEAR 1860, most white Americanswere embarrassed by slavery. After theAmerican Revolution and its promise that “allmen are created equal,” the states north ofMaryland abolished slavery. But in the South,plantation owners depended on slaves.Growing cotton, sugar, rice, and other cropsin the hot weather required the labor of manypeople, and relatively few whites lived there.The region’s richest planters believed thatwithout slaves their economy would beruined. Because they could not explain howpeople could be slaves in a nation where all were supposed to be free, they simplycalled this bondage the Peculiar Institution.Northerners continued to chide Southerners,and this made them angry. Many of them felttrapped by slavery too. Their representativesin the U.S. Congress told the rest of the nationto accept the situation. While white menargued, black slaves suffered. They were paidnothing, fed little, given poor clothing, anddenied an education. Their masters could beatthem at any time, and they and their familiescould be sold. Long before the Civil War,slavery was a moral and political problemthat would not go away.ADVERTISING ASLAVE AUCTIONSlaves were sold atauctions. Before oneof them was held,advertisements such as this one were circulated. Theydescribed the menand women who werebeing put up for sale.TOOLS OF CRUELTYThis photograph was circulatedthroughout the North byantislavery activists. The man in itis a er slave who posed inshackles and an iron slave collar fora Union army officer during theCivil War. A paddle used forbeating slaves lay on the groundbehind him.A SLAVE COLLARA slave could be worth severalhundred dollars. If he or sheescaped, it was a financial loss forthe owner. If the master believed aslave was likely to run away, hesometimes kept track of the slaveby locking him or her into thiscollar equipped with bells. As longas the master could hear thejingling of the bells, he knew hisslave was close by.Slaves whogrew tired ofhearing thecopper bellsmuffled theclappers withdirt and mud.Auctioning slaveswas a specialtyfor some of theauctioneeringprofessionals.AT WORK IN THE FIELDSThese cotton field hands labor under the supervision of a mountedoverseer, a white manager of slaveswho was employed by the owner ofthe plantation. Overseers were alsoexpected to control and disciplineslaves. The cruelty of some of theminspired the novelist Harriet BeecherStowe to create the villain SimonLegree, a character in her novelUncle Tom’s Cabin.ShackleLeg iron, which prevented aslave from bending the legSlave child. There was noone to care for youngslaves, so they spent timein the fields from birth.flexpaper.studylead.comKING COTTONThese are picked bolls of raw cotton. Until their tangledfibers are combed out and their seeds are removed,they cannot be woven into fabric. Slaves did thesechores by hand until 1793. In that year, twenty-eight-year-old Eli Whitney of New England invented thecotton gin, a hand-cranked machine that combed andseeded cotton in large quantities. This made cotton the“king” of the Southern economy, allowed whiteplanters to amass fortunes and created a need fortens of thousands of slaves to work the cotton fields.Cotton bollSLAVES FOR SALEThe Peculiar Institution was a business. Millions of dollars were made and spent on the sales of human beingseach year until the end of the Civil War. This painting of a slave auction was made in 1852. The last public slaveauction in the United States was held in St. Louis, Missouri, in 1865.Slave buyerOverseerCanvas cotton sackSlave handlerAuctioneerflexpaper.studylead.comThe election of 1860WHEN THE PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION of 1860 arrived, the candidates took positionson the great controversy of the day where and why slavery should exist inthe United States. John Bell, the little-known candidate of the Constitution Party,said slavery and the U.S. Constitution should be left as they were. The DemocraticParty split into two factions at its convention. Pro-slavery Southerners nominatedU.S. Vice President John C. Breckinridge ofKentucky as their candidate. Democratswho favored a compromise over theslavery issue named Illinois SenatorStephen Douglas as their candidate.The six-year-old Republican Partyopposed slavery. Its candidatewas Illinois attorney AbrahamLincoln, a man with littleexperience in government.Lincoln won the election, butwith little popular support,because the majority had split itsvotes among the other three men.Opponents of the Republicans wereoutraged; some even demanded thatthe election be declared invalid, andrepeated. Pro-slavery Americanswere expected to acceptquietly a leader they didnot want. They tookradical actioninstead.A TOOL OF POLITICSIn the early and middle1800s, supporters of allparties held rallies and parades for theircandidates. Often theseevents took place at night,at the end of the workday.The item shown here is aparade torch. Dozens ofmarchers carried theseflames to light the way forcandidates, supporters,and marching bands asthey walked throughtowns and villageschanting campaignslogans and singingcampaign songs.CANDIDATE LINCOLNIn Lincoln’s time, presidentialcandidates did not make manypersonal appearances. Theirsupporters did the travelingand made all the speeches.Printed portraits of thecandidates were posted onwalls or passed around tofriends. Presidentialcandidates StephenDouglas and John C.Breckinridge embraced newtechnology in 1860 and hadphotographs of themselvesdistributed. Abraham Lincolnwas also photographed thatyear. However, not even hisstaunchest supporters believedLincoln was handsome, andpictures of him were rarely seen. Many people who voted for Lincoln had no idea what helooked like. After the election, alittle girl wrote to him, suggestingthat he grow whiskers. He did.Today he is remembered as aman with a beard.flexpaper.studylead.comCANDIDATE DOUGLASSenator Stephen Douglas was afamous politician in 1860. Hewas a skilled speaker and alikable man. Because of hisslight stature, supporters calledhim the Little Giant. In 1858,Abraham Lincoln had runagainst him for his Senate seat,debating him in public severaltimes. Although Lincoln lost thatelection, the debates popularizedmany of his views. They alsoserved to introduce the little-known politician from Illinois tothe broader American public. CANDIDATE BRECKINRIDGEDemocrat John C. Breckinridgeserved as vice presidentduring President JamesBuchanan’s term in office.Buchanan was a Democratfrom Pennsylvania, a freestate. Breckinridge was aDemocrat who came fromKentucky, a slave state.This combination ofcandidates from the Northand the South had helped theDemocratic Party win theWhite House in

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